Skip to main content

Full text of "How to Read Character: A New Illustrated Hand-Book of Phrenology and Physiognomy"

See other formats

/' y v If * COLLECTION OF * 

p^irfoHccti Commission 






"— T 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 


jjUb I'Husintcb |j;ttti)-^oo!t 




>'actou. Hf'ace Mann 


I J upe. 

New York : 


27 East 21ST Street. 

London : 

L. N. FOWLER & CO., 

^v /\ 7 Imperial Arcade, Ludgate Circus. 

^> v3j lb99 . mil™ 

1 ^°\°t 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, In the year 1868, by 


In the Clerk'o Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern 
District of New York. 

Copyright, 1896, 
By Fowler & Wells Qo, 


jff^HE first Phrenological Chart ever produced 
was printed on a single sheet, the size of our 
common note paper, and was sold for a cent. It 
simply gave the names of the organs then discov- 
ered by Dr. Gall. The next was larger, and gave 
both the names and definitions of the organs ; still 
later, the charts of Drs. Gall and Spurziieim em- 
braced all the above, together with some account of 
the Temperaments. But as it was with the invent- 
ors of the steam-engine, the locomotive, and the 
steamboat, so it has been with phrenologists. Each 
succeeding author is supposed to have availed him- 
self of all that has been proved to be true and useful, 
adding thereto his own observations and experiences. 
Thus the improved charts of to-day are as unlike 
those first printed as are the modern steamers, loco- 
motives, and engines to those first invented. 

During our thirty years' experience in the prac- 
tical application of scientific rules to character read- 
ing, we have used many different charts, revising 
old ones year after year, and adding one improve- 
ment after another. The present work embodies our 
latest and best ideas on the subject, so far as they 
can be set forth in this condensed and popular form. 


It contains not only all of the Phrenology of pre- 
vious charts or hand-books for self-instruction, but 
it embraces much more of Physiology and Physi* 
ogxomy than any former book of the kind. 

In this Illustrated Hand-book we have endeavored 
to incorporate just that kind of matter best suited 
to both the Examiner and the Examined, and to 
put it in the smallest possible compass compatible 
with completeness of statement and ample illustra- 
tion. We have endeavored to be systematic in our 
arrangement, succinct and clear in our expositions, 
and popular rather than technical or professional in 
our style. We do not claim that this work is free 
from error. Our knowledge of Anatomy, Physiol- 
ogy, Chemistry, Astronomy, etc., will, we doubt 
not, increase with our years and with more careful 
study ; so we intend it shall be with our knowledge 
of Phrenology and Physiognomy. We hope to re- 
vise this and all our other works when time may 
permit. We ask examiners and readers to kindly 
point out errors and to suggest in? provements, that 
We may correct the former and incorporate the latter 
in future editions. 

That this little work may be the means of encour- 
aging the reader to correct any errors of judgment 
or improper habits he may possess — to cultivate and 
develop all the higher qualities of mind and heart— 
and to make the most of his opportunities and of 

himself, is the desire of 

New York, January, 1869. 



OME knowledge of tha 
structure of the human 
brain, and of its appear- 
ance when exposed, as 
well as of the general 
forms of the skull, will be useful 
to the learner. We can here 
merely give very brief descrip- 
tions, referring those who desire 
further information to our larger 
and more elaborate works. 

The human brain is an oval 
mass filling and fitting the inte- 
rior of the skull, and consisting 
of two substances, a gray, ash- 
colored, or cineritious portion, and a white, fibrous, or medullary por- 
tion. It is divided, both in form and function, into two principal 
masses — the cerebrum and the cerebellum. 

The cerebrum is divided longitudinally into two 
equal hemispheres, and each of 
these, in its under surface, into 
three lobes. But the most remark- 
able feature in the structure of the 
cerebral globe is its numerous and 
complicated convolutions, the fur- 
rows between which dip deeply 
down into the brain. By means 
of these foldings the surface of the brain is greatly increased, and 

The Human Skull. 

Brain in the 

Brain Exposed. 

* The side and top of the cerebrum are seen in this engraving. A A. The scalp 
turned down. B B. Edge of the base of the skull, the top having been sawed off and 
removed. C. Dura Mater, a part of the .ining membrane of the skull raised up from 
the brain. D. Left hemisphere of the brain. E. Right hemisphere. F. The longi- 
tudinal cleft or fissure which divides the hemispheres. 

la the next en^Tiag tiw fecftin is fully closed., 



power gained v. T itli the utmost economy of space ; for it is a demon- 
strated fact, that in proportion to the number and depth of these con- 
volutions is the mental force. " The mind's revoivings," as Wilkinson 
beautifully expresses it, " are here represented 
in moving spirals, and the subtile insinuation of 
thought, whose path is through all things, issues 
with power from the form of cerebral screws. 
They print their shape and make themselves 
room on the inside of the skull, and are the most 
irresistible things in the human world." 

The cerebellum lies underneath the posterior 
half of the cerebrum, and is about one-eighth the 
■v<ra^fc '"-\» v size of the latter organ. It is divided into lobes 
and lobules, and consists of a gray and a white 
substance, like the cerebrum, but is not convo- 
luted on the surface like the cerebrum ; the gray 
matter so.xewhat darker than that of the cere- 
brum occupies the surface of the cerebellum, the 
white beinjr interiorly disposed. 

Extending from the base of the brain to the 
atlas or bony pivot on which the head rests f 
is the medulla oblongata. It is conical in 
shape, and may be considered as merely the 
head or beginning of the spinal cord, which 
continues it, and, in fact, extends the brain down 
the vertical canal, and by means of the nerves 
which it gives off, and which pass through 
notches between the vertebra?, connects it with 
every part of the body. There are generally 
reckoned eleven pairs of nerves arising from the 
brain, and thirty-one from the spinal marrow. 
It is thus seen that the whole nervous apparatus 
is included in the mental system, and that the. 
brain, as the organ of the overruling mind should be, as it unquestion- 
ably is, is omnipresent in the human body. 

Now, as is the soul which is incarnate in it, so is the brain in texture, 
size, and configuration ; and as is the brain, so is its bony casement, the 
cranium, on which may be read, in general forms and special eleva- 
tions and depressions, and with unerring certainty, a correct outline of 
the intellectual and moral character of the man. 

MM — " 


f m\ 


— i 


Sfinal Cord and 
Nerves. 5 

* a. The brain, b. Cerebellum. /. Medulla oblongata. (J. g. Nerves distributed to 
the arms. k. k. Great sciatic nerve, distributed to the lower limbs. I. Dorsal nerve. 
n. Lnmhfir nerve, m. Plexus of cervical nerves. 1. Olfactory nerve. 2 Optic nerve, 
g, -^ 5, 6. The third, fourth, fifth, and sixth nerves. 7. Portio dura of the seventh imv* 
8. Auditor} nerve and par vagina. 9. Hypoglossal nerve. 



Male Skull. 

Female Skull. 

The heads of the sexes differ in shape as much as do their bodily 
forms. The engravings here presented are from two skulls in our 
possession, and were copied by daguerreotype, and show their relative 
size and shape. The first is from the skull of a man, and is a fair speci- 
men of the male head. It rises high from the opening of the ear, a, to 
Firmness, b. It is large in the social region, particularly at Amative- 
ness, c. The phrenological organs of force, pride, energy, and seli-reli-: 
ance are predominant. The second 
is of a well-balanced female skull, 
and is fine, smooth, and even. The 
leading developments are at d, in 
the region of Philoprogenitiveness, 
Adhesiveness, and Inhabitiveness, 
while at b and c it is much less than 
in the male. At e , Benevolence, and 
at/, Veneration, the female is rela- 
tively more developed, but less so at Firmness and Self-Esteem, b. 

The skulls of races and nations also differ widely in form, and 
these differences are found to correspond with known differences of 
character. In the Caucasian it will be seen that the forehead is 
prominent and high, the coronal region elevated, 
and the back-head moderately projected. The 
facial angle, measured according to Camper's 
method, is about 80 °. It indicates great intellect- 
ual power, strong moral or spiritual sentiments, and 
a comparatively moderate development of the pro- 
pensities. The special organs in which the Cau- 
casian brain most excels, and which distinguish it 
from those of all less advanced races, are 3Iirthfulness, Ideality, and 
Conscientiousness, the organs of these faculties being almost invariably 
small in savage and barbarous tribes. 

See what a contrast between the Caucasian skull and those of the 
North American Indian and the negro here represented ! Ore of the 
most distinctive traits of the 
aboriginal American skull is 
roundness. This quality is 
xcry manifest in every as- 
a^/fi^-^N, J pee?, but still more so in the 
' a ertical and back views than 
in the one here presented. 
Great breadth immediately 
above the cars and in the region of Cautiousness and Secretiveness, 
and a lofty coronal region, are also prominent characteristics. The 
forehead is broad and very prominent at the lower part, but retreating, 
and not high. The back-head in the region of the affections is,, in 

Caucasian Skull. 

Indian Skull. 



general, only moderately developed, but there is almost always a large 
and sharply defined occipital protuberance. 

The negro cranium is long and narrow. Compared with that of 
the Caucasian, the difference is seen to be striking. 1^ the side 
yiew of the former the frontal region is less capacious than in the 
latter, the forehead more retreating, and the occiput comparatively 
more full. The facial angle is about 70 c , the jaws being large and 1 
projecting, and forming what is called the prognathous type. Here 
the animal feelings predominate over both the intellect and the moral 
sentiments. The top view shows the facial bones compressed laterally, 
but projecting enormously in front. 

We might carry these comparisons still farther, and show that each 
nation has its peculiar type of skull, the English differing strikingly 
from the French, and the American from both, and so on, but space 
will not here permit, and we must refer the reader to " New Physiog 
nomy" for additional particulars on this and kindred topics. 

— a^Q^S.^ 1 ' 

Bones oe thk Head and Face.* 

* A. Frontal hone. B. Temporal bone. C. Zygoma. D. Mastoid process. E. Pa- 
rletal bone. F. Occipital bone. G. Malar bone.. H. Superior maxillary bone. I. 
Fa sal bone. K. Inferior maxillary bone. L. Angle of tbe jaw. M. Condyles. N. 
Colloid process. 




@g|iniENOLOGY is a system of 
JH^I mental philosophy founded on 
the physiology of the brain It 
treats of mind, as we kaow 
it in this mortal life, associ- 
ated with matter and acting 
through material instru- 

In its practical application, 
Phrenology becomes an art, 
and consists in judging from 
the head itself, and from the 
body in connection with the 
head, what are the natural tendencies and capabilities of the 

Phrenology does not now claim to be entirely complete as 
a science or perfect as an art, and it demands recognition and 
acceptance only so far as it has been firmly established on the 
broad and immovable basis of the constitution of man. 

The chief principles of Phrenology — every one of which is 
supported by an array of unquestionable facts and susceptible 
of the clearest proof — are the following: 

1. The Brain is the Organ of the Mind. 

2. Each Faculty of t lie Mind has its separate or special 

Organ in the Brain, 

j :: 

Fig. 1.— "The Dome op Thought.' 


3. Organs related to each other in Function are grouped to- 

gether in the Brain. 

4. Size, other tilings being equal, is the Measure of Power. 

5. The physiological conditions of the Body affect Mental 

8. Any Faculty may he Improved by Cultivation and may. 

deteriorate through Neglect, 
7. Every Faculty is normally Good, but liable to Perversion. 


While in this material world, where the all-wise Creator 
has seen fit to place it, mind can neither act nor be acted 
upon except through an organized apparatus. Impressions 
of external objects must be received through the organs of 
sense and their delicate nervous filaments, and thought can 
find expression only by means of the physical instruments 
under its control. 

Now, if we go behind these instrumentalities, tracing back 
the nerves which ramify through all the bodily organs 
to their focus in the interior of the cranium, what do we 
find ? Not mind, but brain — not the immaterial intelligence 
which receives, analyzes, and compares the impressions trans- 
mitted through these nerves, but a material apparatus — an 
organ. Without this organ, no mental manifestation would 
be possible while mind remains linked to matter. 

That the brain is the organ of the mind is now universally 
admitted, and it is necessary merely to mention a few of the 
facts by means of which the truth of the proposition has been 

1. Consciousness localizes the mind in the brain, giving a 
clear conviction that it is there, and nowhere else. 

2. Deficiency of brain is always connected with a low 
degree of mental power. 

3. The brain is found to be larger and more complicated in 
proportion to the strength and variety of the faculties mani- 

4. Mental disturbances always accompany affections of the 


brain, a fever or a blow on the head often changing an intel- 
ligent and gifted individual into a raving maniac. 

5. The rapid withdrawal of the blood from the brain causes 
a swoon, and temporarily suspends consciousness. 

G. Where a part of the skull has been removed and the 
brain laid bare by an injury, it has been found that conscious- 
ness could be suspended by merely pressing on the brain with 
the fingers, and restored by withdrawing the pressure. 

7. It has been observed also, in cases where the brain has 
been exposed to view, that in dreamless sleep it is motionless; 
that dreams agitate it in proportion to their vividness, and 
that when awake the motion is still greater.* Cases coming 
under this head are quoted at length by Mr. Combe in his 
"System of Phrenology," to which the curious reader is 

It being proved and conceded that the brain is the organ 
of the mind, it follows that every mental affection must be 
accompanied by a corresponding state of the organ, and that 
every state of the organ must be atteuded by a certain deter- 
minate condition of mind ; and secondly, that the manifesta- 
tions of mind will bear a strict relation in power and variety 
to the size and quality of its instrument. 


The brain, as a whole, is admitted to be the organ of the 
mind, as a whole. The mind is made up of many separate 
faculties, from which fact alone it might be inferred that the 
brain has a corresponding separate organ for each. That 
such is the case is conclusively proved by evidence which 
can not be set aside or successfully controverted. A small 

* A writer in the Medico- Chirvrgical Review mentions that many years ago he had 
* frequent opportunities of witnessing similar phenomena in a robust young man, who 
/>st a considerable portion of his skull by an accident which had almost proved mortal. 
When excited by pain, fear, or angor, his brain protruded greatly, so as sometimes to 
disturb the dressings, which were necessarily applied loosely ; and it throbbed tumult- 
ously, in accordance with the arterial pulsations." 

The cause of these appearances obviously was, that the brain, like the muscles and 
other organs of the body, is more copiously supplied with blood when in a state of 
activity than while at rest ; and that whoa the cerebral blood-vessels were filled, the 
voter ■« of the brain was augmented, and the protrusion above noticed took place. 


portion of this evidence — all that our space will allow — may 
here be cited : 

1. In all other parts of the system — throughout all nature, 
in fact — each function has an organ for itself. Sight has the 
eye ; hearing, the ear ; digestion, the stomach ; and it may he 
further observed, that wherever the function is compound, the 
organ is corresjwndingly so, as in the case of the tongue, in 
which there is one nerve the office of which is to move the 
member and thus subserve the purpose of speech, a second 
Avhich communicates the sense of. feeling, and a third which 
conveys the sense of taste.* In short, in the whole human 
frame there is, so far as we know, not a single instance of one 
nerve performing two functions. •Reasoning analogically, 
therefore, we infer that functions so essentially different as 
observing and comparing — not to speak of others still wider 
apart — must have separate cerebral organs. 

2. Individuals frequently exhibit extraordinary capabilities 
for some particular pursuit or branch of study, while in regard 
to all other departments of mental effort they never rise above 
mediocrity. If the brain were a unit in function, each faculty 
should be manifested with equal efficiency through its agency. 

3. The various mental powers in man do not appear simul- 
taneously. The child loves and fears long before he has any 
notion even of veneration or of moral responsibility. He 
observes, too, the qualities of external things almost from the 
commencement of his existence, but the power to reason con- 
cerning them comes later. This seems to show that loving, 
for instance, requires the exercise of one part of the brain, and 
venerating another — that observing has one organ, and 
reasoning a different one. 

4. In dreaming, one or more faculties may be in active 
exercise, while all the others are apparently dormant. Emo- 

* But the most interesting example of distinct functions being dependent on distinct 
organs, is furnished by the spinal marrow. This is composed of two double columns, 
the anterior being appropriated to motion, the posterior to sensation. This, Sir Charles 
Bell clearly proved in the following manner: he cut an anterior nerve at its root in an 
ass. and the parts through which it ramified lost the power of motion, though feeling 
remained unimfirti. H* "'it a posterior nerve in another, and the parts through 
which it ramifl(X.losttiie pe^f T of feeling, hut retained that of motioft. 


tions of love, fear, anger, and jealousy may arise and succeed 
each other, coming and going without order or restraint (the 
controlling organs being asleep), or a thousand vivid but 
disjointed conceptions may fill the mind — sometimes rational, 
but oftener absurd, and always differing from the ordinary 
and orderly operations of the fully awakened brain. If the 
brain were a single organ, these partial manifestations could 
not occur, but all the faculties would be asleep or awake 

5. Partial idiocy and partial insanity are plainly contradic- 
tory to the doctrine of the organic unity of the brain. Some 
idiots, utterly deficient in intellect, have strong moral feelings. 
Others manifest only the propensities. In many, perfectly 
idiotic in everything else, some particular faculty is strongly 
developed — as Time, Tune, or Calculation. Pinel mentions 
un idiot girl who manifested wonderful propensity and talent 
for mimicry — could imitate anything she saw or heard, but 
who displayed no intellectual faculty in a perceptible degree, 
and evidently attached no ideas to the sounds she uttered.* 
Were deficiency of brain, as a whole, the cause of idiocy, 
these phenomena could not occur, for whatever brain might 
exist would be as competent to manifest one faculty as 
another. Partial insanity furnishes equally conclusive evi- 
dence on the same point. 

6. Partial injuries of the brain result in a suspension of one 
or more faculties, while the others retain their normal activity, 
which could not be the case if the brain were a single organ. 

7. Referring to our own individual consciousness, we may 
satisfy ourselves at any time that the faculties must act 
through a plurality of organs, for we find ourselves feeling 
and manifesting not only different but opposite emotions at 
the same time. This would be clearly impossible with but a 
single organ for all the faculties. 

* Mr. Combe mentions an idiot in Liverpool, named Jones, who manifested great 
facility in learning languages; " Show him," he says, "a passage in the Bible, and he 
will point out and read the parallel passage in seven or eight other languages. But 
•bout the meaning he has no idea. Now if the brain were a single organ, this would 
be the same as if a man had the power of walking east, without having the power of 
walking west." 



The location of any particular organ being known, it would 
naturally be inferred that other organs having related func- 
tions might be found in the same region of the brain. This 
inference is in accordance with the fact as established by 
observation, and furnishes another evidence of the truth of 
phrenology, for this arrangement is the natural one, and the 
one which best serves the purpose of facilitating the action 
of the faculties through their organs, each being thus enabled 
to support and co-operate with the other members of the 
same class. It will also be seen, further on, that the arrange- 
ment of the groups in the cranium is in accordance with the 
same beautiful natural order. 


That size, other things being equal, is the measure of 
power, is a universal and undisputed law, and requires no 
detailed exposition here. It is the basis of all our calculations 
and reasonings in mechanics and natural philosophy as well 
as in Physiology and Phrenology.* 


In stating the general law, that size is the measure of 
power, we are always careful to add the qualifying clause — 
"other things being equal." The "other things" which 
modify this law in the case of the brain are certain physio- 
logical conditions, such as Temperament ; Quality ; Health ; 
Respiration; Circulation; Digestion; Activity; Excitability; 
and Balance or Harmony, all of which affect mental manifes- 

* When the brain is below a certain size, idiotism is the invariable result. In the 
lowest class of idiots, the horizontal circumference of the head, taken a little higher 
than the orbit, varies from 11 to 13 inches ; in a full-sized head, the circumference is 
22 inches ; in Spurzheim's skull it is 22&. In such idiots the distance from the root 
of the nose, backward over the top of the head to the occipital spine, is only 8 or 9 
inches ; in a full-sized head it is 1-1 ; in the skull of Spurzheim it is 15 0-10. Let those 
who deny the influence of size reconcile these facts with ths^ - belief. " But," say 
some, " we know idiots who have large heads." Our reply is— so ;> we ; but, then, in 
these cases, the brain is not healthy. A large leg is usually indieativ of strength ; bat 
this is not the case when the leg is large from disease. But though d oase be absent, 
if the size of the brain be very deficient, idiocy is invariable, and men smarkable for 
great force of character, as Bruce, Cromwell, Bonaparte, Franklin, Webster, and Burns, 
invariably have heads of unusual magnitude. 


tation in a greater or less degree, and must always be taken 
into account in estimating character. 


Every faculty of the human mind is susceptible of being 
improved by judicious culture. This is a principle of great 
practical importance, and affords opportunity and encourage- 
ment to every one (for all have more or less need of improve- 
ment), and especially to those who have marked and embar- 
rassing deficiencies of character. It is only applying to the 
mind through its organ, the brain, or to a fticulty of the mind 
through its special organ, the same means we make use of to 
strengthen the arm or increase the flexibility of the fingers — 
properly adapted exercises. The improvement of man does 
not imply the extinction of any faculty or the creation of 
new faculties, but the development and training of all existing 
mental powers. The means through which each faculty may 
be strengthened, if too weak or restrained, if too active or 
influential, will be pointed out in another place. 


Each faculty is in itself good, and was given by the Creator 
for the benefit of its possessor and the world, but may be 
perverted and distorted, and thus made an instrument of evil, 
or stunted and dwarfed, so as to become impotent for good. 
When rightly developed, acting in harmony, and with the 
lower faculties duly subjected to the higher, each contributes 
its share to the w r elfare and happiness of man. 

There is no organ of murder, but there is a faculty intended 
to impart energy, executiveness, force and effectiveness in 
character and action, which, when large, active, and not 
restrained by the more conservative powers of the mind, 
may lead to violence and bloodshed. So the property- 
getting, accumulating propensity, given us for the laudable 
purpose of making a wise provision for the future, may, by 
perversion and lack of moral control, become the instigator of 
fraud and theft. In all cases the evil is the result of a disorderly 
manifestation and not th 'i-gitimate action o^ + he facuUy 





'%JfT lias been stated in the previous chapter that mental 
•JIlL manifestation, depending primarily upon the size of 
va^S) ^he brain for its power and efficiency, is modified by 
certain bodily conditions which affect the action of the organs. 
These conditions are so important in their practical bearings, 
that the student of Phrenology, especially if he have in view 
any application of the science either in public or merely 
among his friends and acquaintances, should not fail to make 
himself familiar with them. 

The intimate connection between body and brain is illus- 
trated in many ways, and in the experience of every one. 
They act and react upon each other. The nerves which 
ramify through every part of the body, all have their focus in 
the brain. If the body be ill, weak, or exhausted, the brain 
gives but feeble manifestations. If the body be stimulated 
or exhilarated, the brain shares its strengthened or quick- 
ened action. The influence of mind upon body is not less 
potent. Hope and joy quicken the circulation, brace the 
nerves, and give firmness and tension to the muscles. Grief 
and despondency have a relaxing tendency, weakening the 
limbs and deranging all the functions of the body, and 
especially those of digestion and secretion. In the same way 
other conditions of body and mind, whether constitutional 
and permanent or pathological and temporary, act and react 
upon each other, making it necessary for him who would 
study mind and read human character to make Himself familiar 
with the conditions of the body, and equally so for him who 
would minister to the needs of the body, either in sickness or 
in health, to make himself acquainted with the existing state 
of the mind as well as its permanent characteristics. 



First in order, in noting the physiological conditions which 
affect mental manifestation, is temperament, which may be 
defined as " a particular state of the constitution depending 
upon the relative proportion of its different masses and the 
relative energy of its different functions." 

Temperament has generally been looked at from the stand- 
point of physiology and pathology rather than from that of 
anatomy, and the classification of the various constitutional 
conditions now generally accepted by physiologists is founded 
on the distinct influences of the stomach, the lungs, the liver, 
and the brain, either of which predominating gives its peculiar 
conformation and complexion to the body and its specific 
tone to the mind. We have, then, under this arrangement, 
four temperaments. They are called : the Lymphatic Tem- 
perament ; the Sanguine Temperament ; the Bilious Tem- 
perament ; and the Nervous Temperament. 

1. The lymphatic temperament, depending on the pre- 
dominance of the stomach, is characterized by roundness of 
form ; repletion of cellular tissue ; softness of the flesh ; a 
weak pulse, and a languid condition of the system generally. 
The complexion is pale, the hair generally light, and the eyes 
light and dull. 

2. The sanguine temperament, depending upon the pre- 
dominating influence of the arterial system, is indicated by 
a moderate plumpness of parts ; tolerably firm muscles; light 
or chestnut hair; blue eyes; a strong, full pulse; and an 
animated countenance. Persons with this temperament are 
ardent, lively, and impressible, and possess more activity ant . 
energy than those having the lymphatic temperament. 

3. The bilious temperament, having the liver for its b?*is, 
has for its external signs black hair ; a dark yellowish skin ; 
black eyes; firm muscles; and harshly expressed forms. It 
indicates great activity, energy, and power. 

4. The predominance and abnormal activity of the nervous 
system gives rise to the nervous temperament, a constitutional 
condition marked by light, thin hair; slenderness of form ; 
delicate health ; general emaciation ; rapidity of muscular 


action ; and vivacity in sensation. It imparts great sensi. 
bility and mental activity. 

This classification has clearly a physiological foundation, 
but the nomenclature adopted (drawn from pathology rather 
than from anatomy or physiology) is objectionable, and two 
.of the conditions or temperaments themselves — the lymphatic 
and the nervous — as usually described, are diseased and 
abnormal, and not healthy states of the constitution. While, 
therefore, we acknowledge its value in a pathological point 
of view, and take into account the morbid conditions it 
embraces, Ave prefer to base our examinations on what w&, 
deem a simpler, and at the same time a more comprehensive, 
system founded on anatomy. 

There are in the human body three grand classes or systems 
of organs, each having its special function in the general 
economy, namely : the Motive or Mechanical System ; the 
Vital or Nutritive System ; and the Mental or Nervous 
System. On this natural basis rests our doctrine of the 
temperaments, of which there are primarily three, correspond- 
ing with the three classes of organs just mentioned, namely: 

1. The Motive Temperament ; 

2. The Vital Temperament ; and 

3. The Mental Temperament. 

Each of these temperaments is determined by the pre- 
dominance of the class of organs from which it takes its 
name. The first is marked by a superior development of the 
osseous and muscular systems, forming the locomotive appa- 
ratus; in the second, the vital organs, the principal seat of 
which is in the trunk, give the tone to the organization ; while 
in the third, the brain and nervous system exert the control- 
ling power. 

the motive temfekame:nt. 

In the motive temperament the bones are comparatively 
large, and generally long rather than broad, and the form 
manifests a tendency to angularity. The muscles are only 
moderately full, but dense, firm, and possessing great strength. 
The figure is generally tall; the face long ; the cheek-bones 
high; the front teeth large; the neck rather long; the 



Shoulders broad, and the chest moderately full. The com- 
plexion and eyes are generally, hut not always dark, and the 
hair dark, strong, and rather abundant. The features are 
strongly marked, and the expression striking and sometimes 
harsh or stern. The whole system is characterized by strength 
and toughness, and is capable of great 
endurance. Persons in whom this 
temperament predominates possess 
great energy, physical power, and 
capacity for work. They have strongly 
marked characters, and are the ac- 
knowledged leaders in the sphere of 
active life. They are men for the field 
rather than the council chamber, and 
are often found at the head of public 
works and of armies. They are observ- 
ers rather than thinkers ; are firm, self- 
reliant, constant in friendship and in 
love ; executive, ambitious, and iDersevering. They love 
power and conquest, and often pursue their ends with a reck- 
less disregard for their own or others' physical welfare. As 
speakers, they use strong expressions, emphasize many words, 
and talk to the point, hitting the nail on the head with a 
heavy blow. 

There is an abnormal development of this temperament, in 
which both the vital and mental systems are sacrificed to 
mere animal strength. It is marked by a small head, deficient 
in the coronal region and broad at the base ; a short, thick, 
neck; broad shoulders ; expanded chest, and large, dense 
muscles, the tendons of which are apparent through the skin. 
The possessor of this excessive development is remarkable for 
brute strength, and for nothing else, unless it bo stupidity. 
Muscle is a good thing, but it is not well to absorb all of one's 
brain in producing an excess of it. 

Full or larere Firmness, Combativeness, and Destructive- 


-War. Reeves, D.D.* 

* William Reeves, a popular Methodist clergyman, is noted as an active, energetic, 
and efficient worker in his chosen profession. His character is as strongly marked as 
his features. He has black hair, dark brown eyes, and a dark complexion. 



ness, and a strongly developed perceptive region are charac* 
teristic of the motive temperament. 

The motive temperament is generally predominant and 
strongly marked among the North American Indians, and is 
very common in Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and France. In 
America, the States of Vermont, Maine, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Missouri, and Arkansas are noted for its development. It 
prevails in mountainous regions. 


This temperament, depending upon the predominance of 
the vital organs which occupy the great cavities of the trunk, 

is necessarily marked 
by breadth and thick- 
ness of body, rather 
than by length. Its 
prevailing characteris- 
tic is rotundity. The 
chest is full ; the abdo- 
men well developed ; 
the limbs plump and 
tapering, and the hands 
and feet relatively 
small. The neck is 
short and thick: the 

Fig. 3.— Rev. Chakles H. Spurgeon.* 

not angular; and the 
head and face corre- 
sponding with the other 
parts of the system, incline to roundness, as seen in fig. 3. 
The complexion is generally florid, the eyes and hair light, 
and the expression of the countenance pleasing and often 

Persons in whom this temperament predominates are both 
physically and mentally active, and love fresh air and exercise 
as well as lively conversation and exciting debate, -but are, in 

* Rev. Charles ITaddon Spurgeon is a very popular English minister of the Baptist 
denomination. He is ardent, imuulsive, persuasive, and very effective as a preacher. 


general, less inclined to close study or hard work than those 
in whom the motive temperament takes the lead. They are 
ardent, impulsive, versatile, and sometimes fickle ; and possess 
more diligence than persistence, and more brilliancy than 
depth. They are frequently passionate and violent, hut are 
as easily calmed as excited, and are cheerful, amiable, ami 
genial in their general disposition. Being fond of jovial com- 
pany and good living, they are more liable than others to 
become addicted to the excessive use of stimulants, as well as 
to over-eating, and should be on their guard against this 
danger, and curb their appetites with a strong will. 

Phrenologically, the vital temperament is noted for large 
animal propensities generally, and especially Amativeness, 
Alimentiveness, and Acquisitiveness. Benevolence, Hope, 
and Mirthfulness are also generally well developed. 

An undue and abnormal preponderance of the absorbent 
system, and a sluggish action of the circulatory organs, pro- 
duce the unhealthy condition called in the old classification 
the lymphatic temperament, characterized, bodily and men- 
tally, by insurmountable languor, sloth, and apathy. 

The vital temperament is the prevailing one in Germany, 
Holland, and England, and in low countries and valleya 
generally ; also among the negroes. 


The mental temperament, depending upon the predomin- 
ance of the brain and nervous system, is characterized by a 
frame relatively slight and a head relatively large; an oval 
or pyriform face; a high, pale forehead, broadest at the top; 
delicately cut features; an expressive countenance; fine, soft 
hair; a delicate skin, and a high-keyed flexible voice. The 
figure is often elegant and graceful, but seldom striking or 

Sensitiveness, refinement, taste, love of the beautiful in na- 
ture and art, vividness of conception, and intensity of emotion 
mark this temperament in its mental manifestations. The 
thoughts are quick, the senses acute, the imagination lively, 
•*ud the moral sentiments generally active and influential. 



In the mental temperament, the superior portions of the 
forehead together with the coronal region are most fully de- 
veloped. Causality, Comparison, Ideality, Spirituality, and 

Veneration are generally 
prominent, while the . or- 
gans which lie in the bas- 
ilar and posterior regions 
of the cranium are not so 
fully developed. 

It is the excessive or 
morbid development of 
this temperament — unfor- 
tunately very common in 
this age and country — 
which corresponds with the 
nervous temperament of 
the pathologists. It is 
characterized by emacia- 
tion of muscles, weakness of body, intensity of sensation, and 
a morbid impressibility. The foundation for this diseased 
condition is laid in the premature and disproportionate devel- 
opment of the brain, and it is built up by sedentary habits; 
the immoderate use of tea, coffee, tobacco; and other hurtful 

The mental temperament is the prevailing one among scholars 
everywhere, and especially in Ireland, France, and America. 

Fig. 4.— Algernon Ciiarles Swinburne.* 


Where either of the temperaments exists in great excess, 
the result is necessarily a departure from symmetry and har- 
mony, both of body and mind, the one, as we have seen, 
always affecting the character and action of the other. Per- 
fection of constitution consists in a proper balance of tem- 
peraments, and whatever tends to destroy this balance or 
to increase existing excesses should be carefully avoided. 

* A young English poet of undoubted genius, whose head is something like that of 
Edgar A. Poe. Is he not sadly wanting in vitality ? 



Fig. 5.— Charles A. Mact.* 

Fi<r. 5 is a tolerably good illustration of a well-balanced 
temperament and a harmoni- 
ous organization. 

A thorough practical knowl- 
edge of the temperaments 
alone will enable one to form 
a correct general estimate of 
character. The practical dif- 
ficulty (by no means unsur- 
mountable, however) lies in 
measuring accurately the rel- 
ative proportion of the dif- 
ferent elements in each indi- 
vidual temperament, so as to 
give each its due influence 
on the character. Study, 
careful observation, and the 
necessary practice will enable the student to do this in time, 
however, with great exactness. 


The next physiological condition to be considered, as affect- 
ing mental manifestation and modifying the law of size, is 
quality. A piece of wrought iron is much more tough than a 
piece of cast iron of the same size. Density gives weight and 
strength. Porous, spongy substances are light and weak. 
The lion is strong because his muscies, ligaments, and bones 
are dense and tough. It is the same in man as in beast, in 
brain as in muscle. Real greatness can exist only where a 
bulky, compact brain is combined with strong nerves and a 
dense, tough, firmly-knit body. Men with small heads may 
be brilliant, acute, and, in particular directions, strong, but 
they can not be comprehensive, profound, or commanding; 
and, on the other hand, men with large heads may be dull, 
if not stupid, on account of disease or low organic quality. 
Both high quality and large size are essential to the highest 
order of power, whether of body or of mind. 

* Formerly a merchant, now a banker in New York. He is a " Friend," or Q-iaker. 



It is difficult to illustrate by means of wood-cuts the con* 
ditions denominated high and low quality respectively, but 



Fis. 6.— Kev. F. W. Robertson.* Fig. 7.— Antoine Probst.! 

figs. 6 and 7 will convey an imperfect idea of their external 
manifestations. Observe the features of the two characters, 
and note the difference. 


Having taken note of the size of the brain and the original 
organic quality of the body (with which the brain must 
correspond), the existing condition of the whole, as regards 
health, must be taken into account. 

All states of the body affect the mind, as we have shown 
in a previous section. The strong thoughts which have 
moved the world have not been sent forth among men through 
the agency of weak, sickly bodies. The motive power of 
muscle and of brain is the same. We can no more write, 
study, or think energetically and effectively when sick, than 
we can wield the ax, the sledge hammer, or the scythe. 

* An English clergymau_jvho resided in Brighton, of singularly refined tasteB, fervent 
piety, and impressive eloquence, lie died in 1B63. 

t Antoine Probst, a brutal murderer, confessed that he killed seven persons — the 
Deering Family. He was executed ia Philadelphia in 1866. 


Animal power is not mind, but it is something which mind 
requires, in this life, for its manifestation. Memory, reason, 
eloquence, poetry, philosophy, and even morality, are affected 
by disease. A disordered body involves disordered or 
Aveakened mental manifestations. In some diseases, as in 
consumption, for instance, there is often great clearness and 
vividness of conception and a high tone of moral feeling, but 
there is, at the same time, lack of power and continuity, and 
a fitful and vacillating state of mind. "A sound mind in a 
sound body" is the law; and in the sickly body, a weak and 
inefficient state of mental action. 


Respiration is one of the most important functions of the 
physical system. Breath and life are one. When the former 
fails, death supervenes. Eve?i plants breathe, in their way, 
and die at once if air be excluded from them. 

The power of respiration depends upon the size of the chest 
and the condition of the lungs. The size of the chest is 
readily ascertained by measurement.* This, other things 
being equal, will be the measure of the breathing power. 
The general health as well as the condition of the lungs must 
oe taken into account as modifying the energy of respiration. 
The signs of good breathing power, in addition to a broad or 
jeep chest, are considerable color in the face, warm extremi- 
ties, elastic movements, and vigorous functions generally. 
Where it is deficient, there is general pallor, with occasional 
flushing of the face, cold hands and feet, blue veins, and great 
liability to colds and coughs. 

Our vitality is in proportion to our respiration. The asser- 
tion of a distinguished physician, that " many people die for 
want of breath — when it is their own carelessness alone that 
prevents them from breathing," is no less true than startling. 
If we only half breathe — and many scarcely do that — we only 
half live. To expand the chest, therefore, and to increase our 
breathing power where it is deficient, is of the utmost import- 

* Military reflations require tho c'.vcu;r.f; ,.-v.<x of the recruit's chest to be equui to 
we half ln> height. 


ance. Whether, as Alphonse ije Roy and others have con- 
tended, the development of the chest be actually an absolute 
standard of the length of life or not, it is clear enough that 
by expanding it, life may be prolonged and health and beauty 


Respiration and Circulation are closely related. Lungs 
and heart co-operate harmoniously in the work of manufac- 
turing vitality. Between the heaving of the chest and the 
beating of the pulse, there is a definite relation both in 
strength and rapidity. 

Good blood is the result of pure food properly assimilated 
and fully oxygenated by the copious breathing of pure air, 
and it is the office of the heart to propel this blood through 
the system. From the blood is made muscle, nerve, and 
brain. If the blood be good, these are strong, healthy, and 
efficient. If the blood be poor, or charged with impurities, 
the structures built up by it will be weak and disordered ; for 
"the blood is the life thereof." 

The signs of a good circulation are — a healthy color in the 
face, warm extremities, and a slow, strong, steady pulse. 


Digestive power depends primarily upon the condition of 
the organ of digestion — the stomach; but is affected by both 
circulation and respiration. If the former be deficient, the 
proper quantity of blood may not be sent to the stomach 
during the process of digestion ; and if the latter be imperfect, 
the blood sent to the stomach will lack its full quickening 
and strengthening power. Copious breathing promotes the 
process of digestion and strengthens the digestive organs 
as well as the lungs. 

A good development of firm, solid flesh and a healthy 
color are sic;ns of sound digestive organs and an effective 

* To cultivate breathing power and expand the chest, practice the following exer- 
cise : Stand erect, throw the shoulders back, and then breathe slowly, freely, and deeply, 
fitting Hie lungs to their utmost c,ap"cit>j at ei-ery inspiration. Do this several times & 
iuy in the open air if practicable, and if not, in a well-ventilated room. 


performance of the digestive process. Emaciation, paleness, 
a sallow or pimpled skin, and a peevish and desponding 
state of mind are indications of deranged or imperfect 


Activity is a matter of temperament mainly, and is greatest 
where the motive and the mental temperaments are both 
strongly developed. Its indications are length of body and 
limb, with very moderate fullness of muscle. The deer, the 
greyhound, and the race-horse illustrate the fact that activity 
and ease of action are associated with length and slenderness, 
and delicacy of structure. 


This is another condition depending upon temperamental 
combinations, and has its greatest normal manifestations in 
those in whom the vital and the mental temperaments are 
both well developed. It is morbidly active in persons whose 
nerves are disordered and whose systems have been subjected 
to the stimulation of alcoholic liquors, tobacco, and strong 
tea and coffee. In the lymphatic temperament there is the 
opposite condition,— a general coldness and apathy, which 
nothing seems to arouse into a geuuine feeling of interest in 
present things and passing events. 


It is essential to a harmonious character, and the most 
efficient action of the faculties, that all the developments of 
the body and brain and all the physiological conditions of 
both be well balanced — that there be no marked excesses or 
deficiencies ; and in estimating the influence of the body upon 
the mind in any given case, we must not only consider its 
individual developments and conditions, but the proportions 
and relative activity and power of each. Where all act 
together harmoniously, the effective strength of each is 
increased ; while, on the oilier hand, lack of balance or 
harmony impedes the action of all. 





Fig. 8.— Three Regions. 


^Tfi^HE arrangement of the 
various organs of the 
brain in groups fur- 
nishes a beautiful illustration 
of that perfect adaptation of 
means to ends which charac- 
terizes all the works of God, 
and which man can only ap- 
proximate in his most skillfully- 
contrived inventions. The 
place of every organ of body 
and brain is just that which 
best fits it for its special 
function, and grouped around 
it for its support, and for co-operation with it in action, are 
those organs most closely related to it in function. Observe, 
for instance, the relations so admirably indicated in the 
arrangement in contiguity of Amativeness, Parental Love, 
Friendship, and Inhabitiveness ; or of Acquisitiveness, Secre- 
tiveness, Destructiveness, and Combativeness. So Individu- 
ality, P dvm, Size, Weight, Color, Order, and the rest of the 
Perceptives, indicate by their locations not only their matter 
of-fact tendencies, but their relationship to each other and to 
the external senses — seeing, hearing, etc. 

In accordance with the same principle, we find the groups 
so placed that the location of each indicates its rank in the 
graded scale of functions. The propensities or animal organs 
(fig. 8) are placed next to the spinal column, in the base of 
the brain, and in close connection with the body. Rising 
above these, we come into the region of intellect ; while above 


that, in the coronal region, are the moral or spiritual senti- 
ments, through which we are brought into relation with God. 


The first division of the faculties of the mind and the 
organs of the brain is into three grand classes : 

1. The Propensities ; 

2. The Intellectual Faculties; and 

3. The Moral or Spiritual Sentiments. 

How these great classes of faculties are arranged, each in 
its special region of the brain, may be seen in fig. 8. The 
Propensities, having to do with natural things, and being 
closely related to the physical system, are placed nearest to 
the body, with which their connection is intimate through the 
spinal marrow and its ramifying nerves. In front, the Intel- 
lectual Faculties are arranged in appropriate order. They are 
not in quite so close connection with the body as the Propen- 
sities, nor yet too far removed, and have their out-look, as it 
were, upon the external world. Above these, and crowning 
all, are the Moral Sentiments, occupying the highest place, 
as they are highest in function and relation. Through them, 
as through windows opening toward heaven, the soul gets 
glimpses of things lying above and beyond its present narrow 
environments — of a better life, and of the joys to which it 
can here only aspire. 

The Propensities give force and efficiency in all actions; 
adapt us to our fellows ; and lead us to take care of ourselves. 
The Intellectual Faculties enable us to obtain knowledge of 
men and things ; to compare and arrange facts ; and to invent 
and construct what we need for the practical application of 
our knowledge. The Moral or Spiritual Sentiments are 
meant to control all the rest by subjecting them to the 
tribunals of kindness, justice, and the Divine Law. 

The grand classes or orders of faculties and organs we 
have thus described and illustrated are each divisible into 
smaller groups, the members of which bear a still closer 
relation to each other t-h"i to the members of other sub- 




PlQ . 9,-Yankee Sullivan. THE PROPENSITIES. Fig. IO.-Rev. Dr. Bond. 

Vie. 11.— Rev. H. M. Gallaher. Fig. 12.-A Partial Idiot, 


Fig 13 — T WoiWiBBqjBK, D.D. Fiu. H.~ fteiuwii: l)tuu^o». 



The classification we adopt gives us the following arrange* 
ment of classes and groups : 

I. — The Propensities. 

1. The Social Group. 

2. The Selfish Group. 

II. — Intellectual Faculties. 

1. Group of the External Senses. 

2. The Perceptive Group. 

3. The Reflective Group. 

4. The Literary Group. 
III. — The Moral Sentiments. 

1. The Selfish Group. 

2. The Semi-Intellectual Group. 

3. The Religious Group. 

1. The Social Group has for its collective function the 
manifestation of those affections which connect us with 
country and home, and attach us to relations, conjugal com- 
panions, family, and friends. 

2. The office of the Selfish Group is to make proper pro- 

Fig. 15.--Groct of Organs. 

Fig. 16.— Black Hawk. 

Fig. 17.— Joseph Smith. 


vision for the animal wants, and to secure the prese. nation 
of life, the defense of the person, and the accumulation and 
protection of property. 



3. The External Senses have for their appropriate work the 
conveying to the brain of intelligence concerning the world of 
material things outside of the brain itself, acting, therefore, 
in direct co-operation with the perceptive faculties. 

4. The Perceptive Group, through the senses, brings man 
mto direct communication with the physical universe, gives a 
correct judgment of the properties of things, and leads to the 
practical application of the knowledge obtained. 

5. The Function of the Reflective Group is to analyze, 
compare, and classify the facts collected by the perceptives, 
and to philosophize, contrive, invent, and originate ideas. 


Fig. 19.— Miss Carmichael. 

Fig. 18.— Louis Agassiz. 


6. The Literary Group imparts memory, and the ability to 
communicate ideas and feelings by means of written or spoken 
words. (Included among the perceptives in diagram, fig. 15.) 

7. The Group of Selfish Sentiments gives regard for charac- 
ter, love of distinction, self-reliance, independence, stability, 
and perseverance. They have an aspiring and governing 

8. The Semi-Intellectual Group has for its function self-im- 
provement, and the love and production of whatever is beauti- 



ful. It is elevating and chastening in its influences, and acts 
iu co-operation with the strictly religious group, to which it is 
closely allied. 

9. The Religious Group has the highest office of all, and 
tends to elevate man into fellowship with angels, and beget 
aspirations after holiness and heaven, while making him at 
the same time meek and humble — even as a little child — ■ 

Fig. 20.— Emanuel Kant. Fig. 21.— A Negro. 


toward God. When large and active, and holding the lead- 
ing place which belongs to it, all the other groups are sancti- 
fied through its action. 

Our illustrations, so far as they go, tell their own story too 
well to need much comment. We select extreme cases when 
we can, in order to make the contrast as great as possible, and 
thus impress the fact illustrated upon the mind. Some of the 
sub-groups are not susceptible of pictorial illustration. 



1. Amativencss. 3. Adhesiveness. 

2. Philoprogenitiveness. 4. Inhabitiveness. 

h. Continuity (not grouped). 



E. Vitativeness. 8. Alimentiveness. 

C. Combativeness. 9. Acquisitiveness. 

7. Destructiveness. 10. Secretiveness. 



11. Cautiousness. 13. Self-EsteenC. 

12. Approbativeness. 14. Firmness. 


15. Conscientiousness. 17. Marvelousness. 

16. Hope. 18. Veneration. 

19. Benevolence. 


20. Constructivenesg. 22. Imitation. 

21. Ideality. 23. Mirthfulness. 
C. Human Nature. D. Agreeablfiness. 



Feeling. Hearing. 

Sight. Taste. 



14. Individuality. 28. Color. 

A5. Form. 29. Order. 

20. Size. 30. Calculation 

27. Weight. 31. Locality. 


32. Eventuality. 34. Tune. 

33. rp ipie. 35. Language. 


36. Causality. 37. Comparison. 



1. Amattveness, Love between the sexes — desire to marry. 
A Conjugality, Matrimony — love of one — union for life. 

2. Parental Love, Regard for offspring, pets, etc. 

3. Friendship, Adhesiveness — sociability — love of society. 

4. Inhabitiveness, Love of home and country. 

5. Continuity, One thing at a time — consecutiveness. 

E. Vitativeness, Love and tenacity of life — dread of annihilatioH. 

6. Combativeness, Resistance — defense — courage — opposition. 

7. Destructiveness, Executiveness — force — energy. 

8. Allmentiveness, Appetite — hunger — love of eating. 

9. Acquisitiveness, Accumulation — frugality — economy. 

10. Secretivexess, Discretion — reserve — policy — management 

11. Cautiousness, Prudence — provision — watchfulness. 

12. Approbativeness, Ambition — display — love of praise. 

13. Self-Esteem, Self-respect — independence — dignity. 

14. Firmness, Decision — perseverance — stability — tenacity of will. 

15. Conscientiousness, Integrity — love of right — justice — equity. 
1G. Hope, Expectation — enterprise — anticipation. 

17. Spirituality, Intuition — faith — " light within" — credulity. 

18. Veneration, Reverence for sacred things — devotion — respect. 

19. Benevolence, Kindness — goodness — sympathy — philanthropy 

20. Constructiveness, Mechanical ingenuity — sleight of hand. 

21. Ideality, Refinement — love of beauty — taste — purity. 

B. Sublimity, Love of grandeur — infinitude — the endless. 

22. Imitation, Copying — patterning — mimicry — following examples. 

23. Mirthtulness, Perception of the absurd — jocoseness — wit — fun. 

24. Individuality, Observation — desire to see and examine. 

25. Form, Recollection of shape — memory of persons and faces. 

26. Size, Cognizance of magnitude — measuring by the eye. 

27. Weight, Balancing — climbing — perception of the law of gravity. 

28. Color, Perception and judgment of colors, and love of them. 

29. Order, Perception and love of method — system — arrangement 

30. Calculation, Cognizance of numbers — mental arithmetic. 

31. Locality, Recollection of places and scenery. 

32. Eventuality, Memory of facts and circumstances. 

33. Tlme, Cognizance of duration and succession of time — punctuality. 

34. Tune, Sense of harmony and melody — love of music. 

35. Language, Expression of ideas — memory of words. 

36. Causality, Applying causes to effect — originality. 

37. Comparison, Inductive reasoning — analysis — illustration. 

C. Human Nature, Perception of character and motives. 

D. Agreeableness, Pleasantness — suavity — persuasiveness. 







Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it. j 

>OCATIOX. — The organ of Amativeness occupies the 
cerebellum, situated in the base of the back-head, 
as shown at 1, figure 23. To find it, feel on the 
middle line toward the base of the skull, at the back part 
of the head, and you will discover a small bony projection 
called the occipital process. Below this point, and between 

Fig. 24.— Aaron Burr.* 

Fig. 25.— George Bancroft. t 

two similar protuberances (the mastoid processes) behind the 
bottom of the ears, lies the organ in question. Its size is 
indicated by the extension of the occipital swellings back- 
ward and inward of the mastoid processes, and downward 
from the occipital process. Observe the striking contrast 

* Aaron Burr, third Vice-President or the United States, was noted for his debauch- 
ery in private life, as well as for his unscrupulous conduct as s statesman. 

t George Bancroft, American historian, is best known for his " History of the United 
States," the most complete and elaborate work of the kind yet produced. He was 
never married. Observe how short and narrow the head back and below the ears, m 
Ihw orgau of Amativeness. gee also Rev. Dr. Pusey, fig. 97. 



between figs. 24 and 25 in respect to this region ; how full the 
head behind the ears in the one case, and how small in the 
other! The characters of the two men correspond with their 
developments. When it is large, the neck at those parts 
between the ears is thick, and it gives a round expansion to 
the nape of the neck, as shown in fig. 26. Fig. 2 7 shows it 

2. Physiognomical Signs. — A large cerebellum and a full 
neck are usually accom- 
panied by a prominent 
if not massive chin, in- 
dicative of the strength 

/ of circulation, vital stam- 
/J ina, and ardor of passion 
Ave expect to find in per- 
sons thus characterized. 

Fig. 2il.— Lakge. a .i i r :v Fig. 27.— Small. 

Another and an unlading 
sign of Amativcness is the breadth and fullness of the lips. 
Their redness indicates present activity of the organ. The 
absence of color indicates inactivity. 

3. Natukal Language. — The action of Love on the chin, 
constituting what may be called its natural language, consists 
in throwing it forward or sidewise, the former movement being 
the more natural to woman and the latter to man. These 
movements of the chin are accompanied by a slight parting 
and considerable humidity of the lip 

4. Function. — The function or use of Amativcness is to 
manifest sexual feeling, and give the desire to love and be 
loved, and to marry. 1 

There is no phrenological organ of more importance, or 
which has a greater influence upon human character and 
human destiny, or the bearings and relations of which are 
more extensive. It increases greatly in size and becomes 
active at the age of puberty. In males, it nearly doubles in 
size between the ages often and twenty, and the feelings and 
emotions dependent upon it undergo a corresponding change. 
The gentler sex, which before were viewed with comparative 
indifference, now seem invested with every charm. Their 


forms seem the perfection of grace, their faces all but divine, 
their voices enchanting, and their smiles bewitching beyond 
expression. The fair ones, at the same period, are conscious 
of similar feelings, and both sexes discover their greatest bliss 
in each other's society. 

Dr. Spurzhcim, speaking of this propensity, says : "Its 
influence in society is immense. It may excite various feel- 
ings, such as Combativeness, Adhesiveness, and Destructive- 
ness, inspire timid persons with great moral courage, and at 
other times and under different circumstances mitigates oar 
nature, and inci eases the mutual regards of the sexes toward 
each other." 

5. Perversion. — The abuse and disorderly gratification 
of this propensity is fraught with innumerable evils, physical, 
intellectual, and moral, destroying the health of the body and 
debasing the tone of the mind ; and so great is the influence 
of the amative propensity, that only the full development and 
proper activity of the higher intellectual faculties and moral 
sentiments are sufficient to hold it in subjection aad make it 
duly subservient to the great end for which it was created. 

6. Cultivation. — Where this organ is small, its size and 
activity may be increased, like those of any other organ or 
part of the body, by judicious exercise ; and this exercise 
consists in a manifestation of the feeling of love for the 
opposite sex, which should be encouraged and promoted by 
social intercourse and the contemplation of the advantages 
and pleasures of the conjugal union. Any one desiring to 
cultivate Amativeness, then, should go into society as much as 
convenient, make it a point to be as agreeable as possible to 
those persons of the other sex with whom he or she may be 
brought into contact, trying to appreciate their excellences 
and to admire their personal charms. A well-developed man 
or woman — one in whom all the elements of masculine or 
feminine organization and character are present iu due pro- 
portion — will exert a strong influence upon the love feeling 
of the other sex and help largely to awaken and develop the 
organ of Amativeness. Such persons should be sought, and a 
warm intimacy established with them. Marriage, when. 


founded on constitutional fitness and true affection, awakcrs 
and develops this organ greatly in those in whom it is 
deficient or inactive. 

7. Restraint. — The excesses and abuses to which this pro 
pensity often leads are by no means always referable to the 
excessive development of the organ in the brain. The true 
cause is often — perhaps in a majority of cases — a pathological 
one — gastric irritation and an inflamed state of «,he blood. 
A too stimulating diet; liquors, wines, tea, coffee, and tobacco; 
and the excitements of the feverish sensational life of our fast 
age are the principal causes of this unhealthy condition. 
The first step, then, is to remove these causes. Abandon the 
stimulants, withdraw from the sphere of social excitements, 
and cultivate the society of people who are living a quieter 
and more sober, earnest, and natural, but not less happy, life. 
Bathing and exercise in the open air, with a rather spare and 
cooling diet, will greatly aid in restoring the system to a 
healthy tone. Beyond these hygienic measures, the only 
means to be relied upon are the restraining influences of the 
aspiring and governing intellectual faculties and the moral 
sentiments. These must be cultivated, and their controlling 
influence brought to bear upon the unruly propensity. Make 
good use of the means God has placed within your reach for 
the government of your passions, asking Him to aid you, and 
you will not struggle in vain. 


Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife , 
and they shall be one. 

1. Location. — The organ of Conjugality or Union for Life 
is situated in the lower part of the back-head (A, fig. 23), just 
above Amativeness. It does not admit of pictorial illustration, 
except merely to indicate its place, as in fig. 28. 

2. Function. — The instinct of permanent union between 
the sexes which it is the function of Conjugality to manifest, 
though closely related to Amativeness, is a distinct faculty, 
and each may be exercised independently of the other. In 
fact, Conjugality very often comes into activity before Am»* 



tiveness, and the young heart pants to find its mate, and 
really does select, meets with a response, and never regrets 
the choice, or changes in the least. Sonic of the most peril ■ t 
and happy of unions ever known have been of this sort, formed 
in childhood, perhaps five years before the promptings of 
Amativeness were experienced. 

3. Illustrative Examples. — Some birds and animals 
choose a sexual mate, and remain faithful to that mate for 
life, as the lion and the eagle. The sheep and horse associate 
promiscuously, and do not choose mates at all. The lion and 
eagle manifest one faculty that the horse and sheep do not 
evince, consequently the disposition to choose a sexual mate 
for life is a distinct and special 
faculty. Among the lower animals, 
those that pair for life are just as 
constant in affection the whole 
year round as they are during 
the procreating season, showing 
that for ten months in the year 
Amativeness is by no means their 
bond of union. 

4. Cultivation. — One desiring 
to develop this organ should strive 
to center all his or her hopes, in- 
terests, and plans for life in the 
one already beloved, and not let 
new faces awaken new loves. Be 
as much as possible in the com- 
pany of the chosen companion, and 

when absent cherish every memorial, association, and remi- 
niscence connected with him or her, not allowing the affections 
to wander, but keeping ever in view the good qualities and 
charms of person and mind which first attracted von. 

5. Restraint. — Should the chosen one die, or love be 
blighted in any way, it may be necessary to restrain an 
excessive manifestation of this faculty leading to despondency 
and broken-heartedness. Try, then, to appreciate the ex- 
cellences of others ; sevk society, and try to find a suitable; 

Fig. 28.— Female Head. 



object upon which to bestow your affections, remembering 
that " there are as good fish in the sea as ever were caught." 

Can a woman forget her sucking child ? 

1. Location. — The organ of Parental Love or Tliilopro-^ 
genitiveness is situated above the middle part of the cerebel- 
lum (2, fig. 23), and about an inch above the occipital protuber- 
ance. When large, it gives fullness to the back-head above 

Fig. 30.— A. Johnson. t 

Amativeness, as seen in fig. 29, which may be contrasted 
with fig. 30, in which the organ is small. 

2. Function. — Parental Love, as its name implies, is the 
peculiar feeling which watches over and provides for the 
wants of offspring. Its primary function is to impart love 
for the young, and particularly for one's own children ; but if, 
also leads to a fondness for pets generally, as an incident;) 1 
manifestation. It gives a softness of manner in treating the 
feeble and the delicate, even in advanced life ; and persons 
in whom this organ is large in combination with Benevolence, 
are better fitted for the duties of a sick chamber than those 
in whom Philoprogenitiveness is small. The natural language 
of the faculty is soft, tender, and endearing. It is essential 

* Queen Victoria is known to have been a loving wife, and to be the excellent but 
perhaps over-fond mother of many children. 

t Johnson was a bachelor, no lover of children— and children, we are sure, would_ Uim-^aud is said to have been a woman-hater, Observe his lips and mouth, 


to a successful teacher of children. Individuals in whom the 
organ is deficient, have little sympathy with the feelings of 
the youthful mind, and their tones and manner of communi- 
cating instruction repel, instead of attracting, the affections of 
the pupil. It is particularly well developed in the negro, who 
makes an excellent nurse. In selecting a person to take care 
of children, always, if possible, take one in whom this organ 
is full or large. 

3. Perversion. — A perverted manifestation of Parental 
Love spoils children by excessive indulgence or pampering, 
or by allowing them to rule, instead of yielding that obedience 
which is due from offspring to parent. 

4. Illustrative Examples. — Those who possess the feel- 
ing of parental love in a high degree, show it in every word 
and look when children are concerned; and these, again, by a 
reciprocal tact, or, as it is expressed by the author of Waverly, 

by a kind of ' free-mason- 
ry,' discover at once per- 
sons with whom they may 
be familiar, and use all 
manner of freedom. It is 
common, when such an 
Pro. 31.— Female Skull, individual appears, among Pig. 32.— Male. 
them, to see him welcomed with a shout of delight. Other 
individuals, again, feel the most marked indifference toward 
children, and are unable to conceal it when betrayed into 
their company. 

The organ of Parental Love is more prominently developed 
in the female than in the male head. It is this, in part, that 
gives its proportionally greater length from the forehead to 
the occiput in the former. Figs. 31 and 32 indicate this and 
other differences between the heads of the two sexes. Of 
course there are exceptions to this general rule. Sometimes 
the back-head is small in women, and also occasionally very 
large in man. In these cases it will generally be found that 
the woman resembles her father and the man his mother. 

5. Cultivation. — To cultivate the organ of Parental Love 
one should court the society of children, play much with, 



them, and try to enter into the spirit of their sports and games, 
and to sympathize with them in their little joys and griefs, 
being always tender and indulgent toward them. Those 
who have no children of their own should, if they have the 
means to support them, adopt one or more, or provide some 
suitable pets. The organ is large in Ralph Wells, a teacher. 
6. Restraint. — If there be a tendency to idolatrous fond- 
ness or to undue and hurtful indulgence, the restraining influ- 
ence of reason and moral sentiment must be brought to bear. 
It should be impressed upon the mind that the good of the 
child requires the exercise of the parents' authority, and that 
they are responsible for all the evils which come from their 
nesrlect to exercise it. 



The soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as 
his own soul. 

LAEGE - 1. Location. — The organ of 

Friendship or Adhesiveness is situ- 


Fig. 33.— Mlle. N.* Fig. 34— Isaac T. Hecker.+ 

ated at the posterior edge of the parietal bone (3, fig. 23), 
just above the lambdoidal suture. It projects at the nos- 

* Mile. N., a young Parisienne. was so tenderly attached to a lady of her own age, 
that neither marriage nor the solicitations of her morher could induce her to leave her. 
Her friend died at a time when such an event was least expected, but Mile. N. did not 
immediately exhibit any marked signs of grief, so that her friends deemed her resigned 


terior and lateral part of the head, on each side of Inhab- 
itiveness, and a little higher than Philoprogenitiveness, 
and when very large produces two annular protuberances 

2. Physiognomical Sign.— Friendship (Adhesiveness) holds 
fast, clings, adheres, and is represented by the round muscle 
which surrounds the mouth and draws together or closes the 
lips. When this muscle is large and strong it produces 
slightly converging wrinkles in the red part of the lips, some- 
times extending slightly into the white part. Small perpen- 
dicular wrinkles in the red part of the lips indicate a smaller 
degree of Friendship, but not a deficiency. 

3. Natural Language. — The great activity of this organ 
disposes persons to embrace and cling to each other; two 
children in whom it is active will put their arms round each 
other's necks, and lay their heads together, causing them to 
approach in the direction of the organ of Adhesiveness, or 
assuming this attitude as nearly as possible. A dog, when 
anxious to show his attachment, will rub his head at the seat 
of this organ on his master's leg. 

4. Function. — This organ gives the instinctive tendency 
to attachment and delight in the return of affection. It 
causes one to seek company, love society, and indulge friendly 
feelings. Those in whom it is strong feel an involuntary 
impulse to embrace and cling to any object which is capable 
of experiencing fondness. It gives ardor and a firm grasp to 
the shake Avith the hand. In boys, it frequently displays 
itself in attachment to dogs, rabbits, birds, horses, or other 
animals. In girls, it adds fondness to the embraces bestowed 
upon the doll. The feelings which it inspires abound in the 

to the loss of her companion. A day or two elapsed after the burial when she was 
found in her chamber quite dead, having committed suicide. A letter, addressed 
to her parents, disclosed the statu of her mind previous to the fatal act, the substance 
of which was that she could not survive the loss of her friend. In scanning the con- 
formation of the back-head of Mile. N., it must be at once seen how very large the 
region of the social sentiments appears. Mark the great distance from the ear back- 
ward. It is an extraordinary instance, and t N e above account furnishes the surprising 
fact in connection with so great a development. 

t Father Hecker is a Roman Catholic priest of New York, of German and English, 
itocfc, noted for learning, talent, energy, and strength of character. 



poetry of Moore. He beautifully describes its effects in th« 
following lines : 

The heart, like a tendril accustomed to cling, 
Let it grow where it will, can not flourish alone ; 

But will lean to the nearest and loveliest thing 
It can twine with itself and make closely its own. 

5. Perversion. — Perverted Friendship leads to bad com- 
pany and the formation of attachments for the unworthy. 

6. Cultivation. — Friendship may be cultivated by associ. 
ating freely with those around us, going much into society, 
and keeping the heart open to all social influences. Ona 
should strive to be as companionable as j)ossible, and not too 
exclusive and fastidious in regard to associates. 

V. Restraint. — Friendship hardly needs restraining, but 
should be kept under the guidance of the intellect and mora} 
sentiments, so as not to be bestowed upon unworthy objects. 


The Lord forbid it me, that I should give the inheritance of my fathers unto thee. \ 


fia. 35.— Rev. T. O. Paine.* 

Fig. 36.— Rev. G. II. HEPWORTH.t 

1. Location. — Inhabitiveness is located between Parental 
Love and Continuity, on the back part of the head. Where 

* Mr. Paine is a Swedenborgian preacher, and author of a work well known and 
esteemed in his church, " Of Pestorina: the Holy Tabernacle," etc. 

t Mr. Hepworth is a popular and eloquent Unitarian minister of Massachusetts. 


it is large or very large and Continuity moderate, an angle if 
formed near the union of the lambdoidal sutures, between which 
and the occipital bone there will be considerable distance. 

2. FuNCTioisr. — The function of this organ is to give lore 
of home and country, a desire to have a permanent abode, 
and attachment to any place where one was born or has 
lived. The feeling is particularly strong in the Swiss, and in 
the inhabitants of mountainous countries generally. 

3. Cultivation. — To increase the activity of this organ, 
one should make home as attractive as possible, and cultivate 
a love of it by planting trees, vines and shrubs, and by dwelling 
on the associations and memories connected with it. Reading 
the history of one's country, and cherishing a just pride in its 
greatness and glory, has a tendency to arouse and increase 

4. Restraint. — Where this feeling is very strong and 
active, absence from home or country often causes a terrible 
feeling of home-sickness. This excessive local attachment 
may be Aveakened by going frequently abroad, reading books 
of travel, and becoming interested in foreign countries. 


Let every man abide in the same calling wherein he was called. 

1. Location. — Continuity or Concentrativeness is situated 
next above Inhabitiveness and below Self-Esteem. When 
large, it gives a general fullness to that region ; and when 
moderate or small, a marked depression will be perceptible. 

2. Function. — The function of Continuity is to give con- 
nectedness to thought and feeling, and thoroughness in the 
elaboration of ideas or the working out of the details of any 
plan. It enables us to keep the other faculties concentrated 
upon a single object, and to follow a train of thought uninter- 
ruptedly through all its phases till we reach the legitimate 
conclusion. It gives unity and completeness to mental 

3. Excess. — A too strong development of this feeling leads 
to excessive amplification and tedious prolixity. 



4. Illustrative Examples. — Continuity is very largely 
developed in the German head, and only a little less so in the 
English, and the people of these nationalities generally stick 
to one thing — one trade or profession through life, and in 
literature and art produce elaborate and finished works, 
noted for unity and completeness. The American has in gen- 
eral but a moderate endowment of the faculty, is correspond- 
ingly versatile, and often changes his occupation. He is, 

Fig. 37.— Thojias Hughes.* 

Fig. 3S.— Elihtj BuRRiTT.t 

perhaps, first a lawyer, then a doctor, and finally a mere»u»nt 
or a farmer — possibly all these at once; and this is one of the 
greatest defects in the American character, and accounts, in 
,fact, for the superficial nature of much of our literature, and 
the want of thoroughness in our studies and in our scientific 
investigations. The defect is increased in those schools where 
a great many studies are pursued at one time. 

5. Cultivation, — Such an arrangement of -work or business 
as will compel continuous attention to one thing, or a steady 
adherence to one line of conduct, will tend to increase the 
activity of the faculty undei consideration, and promote the 
growth of its organ in the brain. Let it be *'onethin<x at a time." 

* Thomas HugtwS*. member of the British Parliament, and author of " Tom Brown's 
School Days,"' <■'... 2naidfe#ts in hie works the influence of tins organ. 

t Well known as " the Learned Blacksmith.' Observe also his large Individuality, 


6. Restraint. — To restrain the excessive or too influential 
manifestation of Continuity, one should reverse the directions 
given in the preceding paragraph, and compel, by some 
arrangement of occupation, a frequent transfer of the atten- 
tion from one thing to another. In writing or speaking, 
where there is a tendency to prolixity, it is well to prescribe 
.o one's self, before commencing, rather narrow limits, and 
imike it a point not to overstep them. 

All that a man hath will he give for his life. 

1. Location.— The organ of this faculty is located just be- 
hind the ear, below Combativeness, and forward from Amative- 
ness (fig. 23, E). See also tig. 39. 

2. Function. — It gives a love of 
existence for its own sake, tenacity 
of life, dread of death, and resist- 
ance to disease. 

3. Illustrative Examples. — 
There is a remarkable difference 
among men in regard not only to 
the love of life and the dread of 
death, but to the actual hold upon 
life. One passes through cholera or 
yellow fever ; gets shipwrecked, and 
goes for days without food and 
lives, while others " give up" and let 
go of life when they might have held 
on. Some yield readily to disease, and resign themselves to die 
with little reluctance, while others struggle with the utmost 
determination against death, and by the power of the will 
often recover from a sickness that would quickly prove fatal 
to another with the same degree of constitution and vital 
power, hut lacking this faculty of resistance to death. This 
difference is believed, on tlie evidence of thousands of obser- 
vations, to be due to the different degrees of development of 

Fig. 30.— Thomas H. Benton.* 

* An American politician and statesmar, ;<oted for his independence, peifi^teuce, 
nd tenacity us weU as for pay bica 1 n \ v' :J n ). v 4 ? "' 



a fundamental faculty which we call Vitativeness. It is not 
recognized by the European writers on Phrenology. 

4. Cultivation. — The constant contemplation of the pleas* 
ures and advantages of life, and the formation of plans to 
secure these pleasures and advantages in the largest possible 
measure, or to do good by living, will tend to increase the 
{feize and influence of this organ. 

5. Restraint. — A morbid love of this life should be held 
in check by cultivating faith in God and in a better life to 
come. Let us cheerfully accept the inevitable. 


Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might. 

1. Location. — Combativeness lied behind and above the 
ears, as shown in the diagram (fig. 23) at 6. To find it on the 


Fig. 40.— J. n. Hopkins, D.D.* 

Fig. 41.— Horatio Potter, D.D.t 

living head, draw a line from the outer angle of the eye to 
the top of the ear, and thence straight backward from an inch 
and a half to an inch and three quarters, and you will be on 

* Dr. Hopkins was for some years Presiding Bishop of the Protestant Ej iscopa] 
Church of the United States, and was distinguished for energy, industry, and contro- 
versial ability. 

t Horatio Potter, D.D., is Protestant Episcopal Bishop of New Tork. ar><] is tnucb 
beloved and admired by his people for intelligence, devotion, mil<"jiesB. aarl tnar 



Fig. 42. 

Fig. 43. 

the place of the organ. On the cranium it corresponds with 
the inferior posteriof angle of the parietal bone, above and a 
little behind the mastoid process, and when large, gives great 
breadth to the he?d at that point, as shown in fig. 42. Fig. 

43 shows the form of the head 

when this organ is small. 

2. Physiognomical Signs. — In 
r connection with the breadth of 

the back part of the side-head at 

the point we have indicated, there 
may generally be observed a marked enlargement of the neck 
below, as in Marshall, the English boxer (fig. 44). This sign, 
when present, we consider infallible, and as it is not often 
covered by the hair, is readily seen. 

Prominence of the ridge of the nose is believed to be another 
sign of Combativeness. It 
is certainly a well-defined 
characteristic of most great 
warriors, pugilists, and 
other fighters. 

3. Natural Language. 
— The action of Combative- 
ness tends to throw the 
head backward and a little 
to the side in the direction 
of the organ, and to give 
the person the attitude of a 
boxer. It also, when ex- 
cited, gives a hard thump- 
ing sound to the voice, as if 
each word were a blow. 

4. Function. — Combat- 
iveness is not primarily a 
fighting faculty, and might 
have received a better name. Its office is to give the will an. I 
ability to overcome obstacles, to resist aggression, contend tor 
rights, and to protect person and property. If it be necessary 
to fight for these objects, it gives the pluck to do it. A cow 

Fig. 44.— Marshall— Murderer. 



Fig. 45. 

Fig. 46. 

siderable endowment of it is indispensable to all great and 
magnanimous characters. Even in schemes of charity, or in 
plans for the promotion of religion or learning, opposition will 
arise, and Combativeness inspires its possessor with that 

instinctive bold- 
ness which enables 

the mind to look 

undaunted on a 

contest in virtue's 

cause, and to meet 

it without the least 

shrinking. Were 

the organ very 
deficient in the promoters of such schemes, they would be 
liable to be overwhelmed by contending foes, and baffled in 
all their exertions. 

5. Perversion. — When too energetic and ill-directed, 
Combativeness produces the worst results. It then inspires 
with the love of contention for its own sake. In private 
society it produces the controversial opponent, who will 
wrangle and contest every point, and, " e'en though van- 
quished, argue still." When thus energetic and active, and 
not directed by the Moral Sentiments, it becomes a great 
disturber of the peace in the domestic circle ; contradiction is 

then a gratification, 

and the hours which 
f ought to be dedi- 
cated to pure and 

peaceful enjoyment 

are imbittered by 

strife. On the great 

field of the world its 

abuses lead to quar- 
Vels, and, when combined with Destructiveness, to bloodshed 
and devastation. 

6. Illustrative Examples. — This organ is generally more 
developed in men than in women, and in male than in female 
animals. It is constantly found large, in military commanders 

Fig. 47. 

Fig. 48. 



and others who have shown remarkable valor and disregard 
of danger. Kapoleon's generals Key and Murat are ex- 
amples in point. Look, too, at the. skull of General Wurmser 
(fig. *5), who defended Mantua so obstinately against 
Napoleon ! See how broad it is from side to side in the region 
of the brgati we are illustrating ! and compare it with that of 
the Cingalese boy (fig. 46) which 
we have placed near it. Our own 
grtat commanders, Grant, Sher- 
man, Sheridan, Hancock, and 
Thomas (fig. 49), Are remarkable 
for this development and for th 
qualities it indicates. 

The ancient artists weem to have 
known that there exists some con- 
nection between this configuration 
and animal courage, for they have 
given it to the heads of their gladi- 
ators and wrestlers. 

The heads of courageous animals 
between and behind the ears are wide, as in fig. 48, while 
those of timid and shy ones are narrow at the same place, as 
in fig. 47. 

7. Cultivation. — To cultivate this oggan where deficient, one 
should rather court than avoid encounters with whatever has 
a tendency to call out a spirit of defiance, resistance, or oppo- 
sition ; and should make it a poini to engage in debates and 
mental contests on every suitable occasion. 

8. Restraint. — To restrain Combativeness, requires the 
controlling power of the intellect arid the Moral Sentiments, 
which should be placed as guards over it, to quell at once, 
before it burst into flame, the rising spirit of anger and con- 
tention. As precautionary measures, we should avoid excit- 
ing discussions and conflicts of opinion, as well as scenes and 
places where temptations to quarrel and fight would be likely 
to assail us 

Fig. 49.— General Thomas.* 

* Major-Gencral George FI. Thomas is an officer in the United States Army, who 
preatly distinguished himself during the laic civil w;ir. 



Be ye angry, and sin not ; let not the sun go down on your wrath. 

I. Location. — Destructiveness (7, fig. 23) is situated in> 
mediately above the ear, and its development gives prominence 


Fig. 50. — Leonard Bacon.* 

Fig. 51.— Albert Barnes.t 

to the skull at that point, and breadth to the center of the 
basilar region of the head, as shown in fig. 52. Fig. 53 shows 
the form given to the skull by its deficiency. When well 

developed it is easily 

2. Physiognomical 

Sign. — In carnivo- 
rous animals — the 

lion, the tiger, and 

the wolf, for instance 

— the upper jaw 

Pie. 52.— Destructiveness projects forward of Fro- 53.— Destructive- 
Large. .,1 ■, 1 •, ness Small. 

the lower; while in 
vegetable eaters the reverse is true, as seen in the sheep, the 
goat, the cow, etc. In carnivorous birds, the upper mandible 

* A prominent minister of the Congregationalist denominaticn in New Haven, 
Conn., regarded as the champion of his sect iu New England. 

t Dr. Barnes, formerly of Western New York, now of Philadelphia, is well and widely 
known as an author, and as a pulpit orator o£ the Presbyterian denomination. 


is much longer than the lower, bending over, as in the eagle, 
the hawk, etc. It is believed that in man analogous physical 
peculiarities indicate dispositions allied to those of the class 
of animals to -which the resemblance may be traced. Thus 
an individual, like that represented in fig. 54, in whom the 
upper jaw projects slightly beyond the lower, will be founa 
to have large Destructiveuess and to be particularly fond of 
animal food ; while fig. 55 represents one who prefers vege- 
table food, and is adverse to the shedding of blood, Destruo- 

Fig. 55.— Destructiveness Small. 

Fig. 54.— Destructiveness Large. 

tiveness being small. This sign, however, requires the con 
firmation of more extensive observations. 

3. Natural Language. — When very active, this propensity 
produces a quick step, a drawing up of the body to the head, 
and a stamping or striking downward, also a wriggling of 
the head, like the motion of a dog in the act of worrying, 
It gives a dark expression to the countenance, and harsh 
and discordant tones to the voice. If in a friendly converse 
with a person in whom the organ is large and Secretiveness 
small, one happens to touch on some irritating topic, in an 
instant the softness of Benevolence and the courtesy of Love 
of Approbation are gone, and the hoarse growl of Destruc- 
tiveness indicates an approaching storm. 

4. Function. — This is one of the organs given to man for 
self-preservation. "It imparts the energy and executiveness 
nece^ary to enable us to overcome obstacles and remove or 



crush whatever is inimical to our welfare; to tunnel mount- 
ains, fell trees, blast out rocks, and face the storm. It impels 
us to destroy in order not to be ourselves destroyed ; to 
endure and to inflict pain, when necessary, as in a surgical 
operation ; to kill the animals necessary for our subsistence ; 
and even to take human life in defense of our own lives, our 
liberties, or our country's safety. 

5. Perversion. — A delight in destruction, in giving pain 
for its own sake, in killing through revenge, 
malice, or a mere thirst for blood, are per- ! ^ 
versions of a beneficent faculty. Professor 
Bruggmans, of Leyden, told Dr. Spurzheim 
of a Dutch priest whose desire to kill and 
see killed was so srreat 

-3Sk^ that he became chaplain 
fe/*"v-.-?w of a remment solely to 

" ' ?s§i 

Fig. 56.— Bctlldog. 

Fig. 57.— Deer. 

have an opportunity of 
seeing men destroyed in 

0. Illustrative Ex- 
amples. — Busts of Ca- 
ligula, Nero, Severus, 
Charles XII., and Catherine de Medicis present remarkable 
prominences in the place of this organ. It was large in the 
ancient Roman head generally, but comparatively small in 
the Greek. It is large in the heads of most savage nations, 
and especially so in those of the Caribs. The Hindoos gener* 
ally have it small. 

All deliberate murderers, in common with carnivorous ani- 
mals, such as the lion, the tiger, and the wolf, have a large 
development of Destructiveness. Observe fig. 56 in contrast 
with fig. 57. It is also larger in men than in women, as indi- 
cated by the broader heads of the former, and the manifesta- 
tions correspond. 

7. Cultivation. — The killing of noxious animals, the extir- 
pation of weed:-, the clearing of forests, the breaking up of the 
land, hunting, fishing, and so forth, help to exercise and 
develop Destructiveness. We may also cultivate a whole* 



tome indignation when wronged, fight against public evils, 
and exercise our energy in striving to remove or destroy 
whatever impedes our progress. 

8. Restraint. — To restrain Destructiveness, cultivate 
Benevolence and a mild and forgiving spirit, avoid killing 
anything if possible, and take but little animal food and n< 
alcoholic liquors. 

For one believeth that he mar eat all things ; another, who is weak, eateth herbs. 

1. Location. — It is situated, as may be seen by reference to 
our diagram (fig. 23), immediately in front of the upper part 

Fig. 58.— Alexander Dumas.* 

Fig. 59.— Me. 

of the ear (8). In the brain, it occupies the anterioi con vol' 
tions of the middle lobe, and externally corresponds with Hit 
anterior part of the temporal bone. To find it on the living 
head, take the upward and forward junction of the err with 
the head as the starting-point, and draw a line half an inch 
forward, inclining a little downward, and you will be upon it. 
It lies nearly parallel with the zygomatic arch, which is oft< n 
rendered prominent by it, when large, but the distance of the 
arch from the proper walls of the skull is variable, and it 
therefore furnishes no certain guide. The temporal musila 
n!so opposes an obstacle to a correct judgment of its degree 

* Well known as a very prolific French novelist of the modem sensational school. 


of development, but may itself be taken as a sign of character 
in relation to this propensity, as it is almost always large in 
connection with large Alimentiveness, and its lower part is 
pushed outward, making it appear as if lying on a pyramidal 
instead of a vertical-sided cranium. 

2. Physiognomical Sign. — In addition to the size and 
strength of the temporal muscle, and the broadness of the 
head on and above the zygomatic arch already alluded to, 
we find accompanying large Alimentiveness a greater or less 
enlargement of the lower part of the cheeks, as shown in fig. 
58, sometimes, when excessive, resulting in an overlapping 
of flabby integument, which gives a gross animal look to the 
face. Fig. 59 shows these signs small. 

3. Function. — The function of this propensity is to prompt 
us to select food and to take nourishment. Its action creates 
the sensations of hunger and thirst, and when unperverted, 
and the stomach in a healthy condition, furnishes a sure guide 
as to the quality and quantity of food necessary for the pur- 
poses of nutrition and health. 

4. Perversion. — Perverted Alimentiveness leads to glut- 
tony and drunkenness, to the use of condiments, coffee, tea, 
tobacco, and other unnatural stimulants, such as opium, 
arsenic, and morphine, and through these to disease, suffering, 
and premature death. 

5. Cultivation. — To increase the activity of this faculty, 
when it is weak or dormant, one should make his table and its 
belongings as attractive as possible, provide the best and 
most finely flavored dishes his means will permit, and then 
sit down with the determination to the meal as much 
as possible. If the inactivity of Alimentiveness result from 
disease of any kind, its restoration will come with that of 
health. The latter requires the first attention. 

6. Restraint. — To restrain this propensity is difficult, and 
requires the exercise of the higher organs, whose action has a 
tendency to hold the appetites in check. In addition to this, 
the temptations of sumptuous tables and rich, highly season- 
ed food should be avoided. You should " eat to live, rathe* 
than live to eat." 





Look not on the wine when it is red. At the last it biteth like a serpent, and 
•tingeth like an adder. 

1. Location. — This organ is situated in front of Aliment- 
iveness. It is not marked on our diagrams. (See fig. 60.) t 

2. Function. — It gives a fondness for liquids; a love of 
water, and a desire to 
drink, bathe, swim, etc. 

3. Perversion. — In 
its perverted action, it 
leads to excessive drink- 
ing, unquenchable 
thirst, and drunkenness. 

4. Cultivation. — The 
practice of bathing, 
swimming, boating, 
and the moderate drink- 
ing of pure water will 
tend to increase the 
action of this faculty. 

5. Restraint. — To 
restrain a too strong 
appetite for drink, abstain wholly from all beverages except 
water, and cultivate the higher faculties; a love for literature, 
art, and nature, or whatever else has*a refining and elevating 
tendency ; and especially seek the help from above which comes 
only through the awakened and sanctified moral sentiments. 


If any provide not for his own, and especially for those of his own household, he hath 
denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel. 

1. Location. — The organ of Acquisitiveness is situated on 
the side of the head next above Alimentiveness (9, fig. 23). 
To find it on the living head, take the middle of the top of 
the ear as a starting-point, and move the finger directly 
upward one inch, and then horizontally forward the same 

Fig. CO.— William Cobbett.* 

* An English writer and politician who s;ient. a portion of his life in America, and 
was noted i'ur his controversial tastes ami abilities. 


distance, and it will rest upon the place of the organ. On the 
skull, Acquisitiveness corresponds with the anterior inferior 
angle of the parietal bone. 

Figs. 63 and 64 show how its' 

Fig. CI.— George Peabodt.* 

Fig. 62.— J. D. B. De Bow.t 

development affects the form of the head as seen in front, 
giving greater width, when large, to this portion of the brain. 
2. Physiognomical Sign. — Persons noted for their love of 
gain and ability to acquire property 
are observed to have, as a general 
rule, massive noses, and it is believed 
that thickness of the nose above the 
wing (fig. 65, a) is the true facial sign 
Fig. 63. of Acquisitiveness. The sign is promi- Fig. 64. 
bent in likenesses of the Rothschilds, Billy Gray, John Jacob 
Astor, and in the living fticcs of the men of our day who have 
made or are making fortunes. The noses of the Jews are 

* Mr. Peabody, the American banker, is as well known for his princely munificence 
as for his immense wealth. 

t The late Mr. De Bow, best known as the editor of De Bow's Review, was a good 
commercial and statistical writer, and had great talent for business, but never accumur 
lated money. 


generally thick as well as arched, and the arched or hawk 
nose has, not inaptly, been called the Commercial Nose ; 
though it is not in the form of the profile, as some have 
asserted, but in the thickness of the trunk, which almost 
invariably accompanies it, that the sign of the 
trading or money-getting propensity resides. 

3. Function - . — Acquisitiveness prompts to 
acquire, to accumulate, to store our surplus, to 
make provision for the future. It incites the 
farmer, the mechanic, the manufacturer, the 
merchant, and the professional man to diligence 
in their respective callings, and is one of the 
sources of the comforts and elegances of life. 
Its regular activity distinguishes civilized man 
from the savage. The latter is, in general, con- 
tent with the satisfying of his present wants, 
while the former looks though fully forward to 
the possible necessities of the future. Consum- 
ing but a portion of what he earns, the industrious and 
prudent citizen contributes to the national wealth, and leaves 
something behind him for the benefit of posterity. The 
objects of Acquisitiveness may be various — in one, money or 
lands ; in another, books or works of art ; in a third, old coins 
and other objects of antiquity, the propensity taking its direc- 
tion from other faculties with which- it is combined. 

4. Perversion. — Excessively developed, Acquisitiveness 
engenders a miserly, grasping penuriousness, and an all- 
absorbing love of gain for its own sake; and when not con- 
trolled by the moral sentiments, results in theft and other 
dishonest means of acquiring the coveted lucre. 

5. Cultivation. — When the organ is small, and there is 
too little economy, and a tendency to lavish and careless 
expenditure, some plan, devised by the intellect, must be put 
into operation to compel, as it were, a more prudent and 
saving course. Keeping a strict account of expenditures, 
and especially personal expenses, and looking over and bal- 
ancing cash accounts frequently, will serve to remind one how 
the money goes and wherein much of it might readily be 



saved. Making up one's mind to get rich, if there be a strong 
will to back the resolution, sometimes arouses Acquisitiveness, 
and finally greatly increases its power. 

6. Restraint. — The only way to restrain this or other 
powerful propensities, is by cultivating the higher faculties 
.and sentiments, and bringing their influence to bear upon 
them, thus keeping them in due subjection. Benevolence, 
Conscientiousness, Ideality, and the reflective faculties tend 
to counteract a miserly tendency or a too great love of money. 



He that keepeth his mouth, keepeth his life ; but he that openeth wide his lips shall 
have destruction. 

1. Location. — The organ of this propensity is situated at 
the inferior edge of the parietal bone (10, fig. 23), immedi- 
ately above Destructiveness, or in the middle of the lateral 

■'■■:- ; --;t?:. :.■■ 

Pig. G6.— F. D. Huntington, D.D.* 

Fig. 67. 

C. Smith, D.D.t 

portion of the brain. When this organ and Destructiveness 
are both highly developed, there is a general fullness of the 
lower and middle portion of the side-head, as in the outline, 
fig. 68. Fis;. 69 shows it small. 

2. Physiognomical Sign. — The breadth of the wings of 

* Francis D. Huntington, D.D., formerly of Boston, well known both as an authoi 
and as a preacher, is Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church of Maine. 

t Dr. John Cotton Smith is an eminent leading Protestant Episcopal clergyman of 
New York. 


Fig. 68.— Secretiveness Large. 

Fig. 69.— Claka Fisher. 

the nose next to the face indicates Secretiveness. This is in 

accordance with the physiological action of this faculty, 

which tends to shut the mouth and expand 
the nostrils. This 
sign is large in the 
Negro, the Chi- 
nese, the North 
American Indian, 
and in most savage 
and half-civilized 

3. Natural Lan- 
guage. — Persons 
who have Secre- 
tiveness large, 

manifest its natural language in various way* — buttoning up 

the coat to the chin, wearing a high, tight cravat ; or, if a 

woman, a dress fitting 

high up on the neck. 

Those who possess little 

Secretiveness wear their 

clothes more loose and 

open. This propensity, 

when predominantly ac- 
tive, produces a close, 

sly look, admirably ex- 
emplified in our likeness 

of Constance Emily 

Kent, the murderess ; 

the eye rolls from side 

to side ; the voice is 

low ; the shoulders are 

drawn up toward the 

ears, and the footstep 

is soft and gliding. The movements of the body are toward 

the side. Sir Walter Scott aocurately describes the look 

Fig. 70.— Constance Emily Kent.* 

An English murderess, "who showed a great deal of cunning. 


produced by this faculty and Cautiousness in the following 
lines : 

" For evil seemed that old man's eye, 
Dark and designing, fierce yet bhy. 
SHU he avoided forward look, 
But slow and circumspectly took 
A circling, never-ceasing glance, 
, By doubt and cunning marked at once, 

7/hich shot a mischief-boding ray 
From under eyebrows shagged and gray." 

4. Function". — The Good Book says : " A fool uttereth all 
his mind, but a wise man keepeth it till afterward." The 
fool thus characterized has no Secretiveness. 

This faculty gives the wise man his prudence — restrains 
expression till " afterward" — till a suitable occasion. It 
imparts, in fact, an instinctive tendency to conceal, and the 
legitimate object of it is to restrain the outward expression 
of our thoughts and emotions, giving the understanding time 
to pronounce judgment on its propriety. Some instinctive 
tendency to restrain within the mind itself — to conceal, as it 
were, from the public eye — the various emotions and ideas 
which involuntarily present themselves, was necessary to pre- 
vent their outward expression ; and nature has provided this 
power in the faculty of Secretiveness. Those in whom it is 
deficient are characterized by a lack of tact, great bluntness 
of manner, and an instantaneous expression of every thought 
and feeling ; and they seldom suspect any hidden purpose in 
another. Othello is described by Iago as such a person. He 

" The Moor is of a free and open nature, 
That thinks men honest that hut seem to be so ; 
And will as tenderly be led by the nose 
As asses are !" 

5. Cui/ri nation. — Where the instinct of concealment is not 
sufficiently developed, the intellect shou.'d, so far as possible, 
supply the necessary policy. There must also be a constant 
effort to suppress injudicious out-gushings of feeling. Impulse 
must lie kept in cheek by Cautiousness and reason. Every- 
body is not to be trusted. 

6. Restraint. — To restrain the too influential action of this 
faculty, a more frank, open, and straightforward manner should 


be cultivated, and constant effort L>e made to give hearty 
expression to thought and feeling. 

A prudent man foreseeth the evil, and hideth himself. 

1. Location. — The place of the organ of Cautiousness is on 
the upper, lateral, and posterior part of the head, and near 


Fig. 71.— John Dowlixs, D.D.* 

Fig. 72.— Rev. J. G. Bartholomew^ 

the middle of the parietal hone (11, fig. 23). When large, 
the head is very broad at that point, as in figs. 71 and 73, 
while a deficiency gives quite another shape to the skull, as 
in figs. 72 and 74. To find Cautiousness on the living head, 
take the back part of the ear as 
the starting-point and draw a 
perpendicular line upward, and 
where the head begins to round 
off to form the top is the location v 
of the organ. 

2. Natural Language.— The FlQ - 74 " 
action of this faculty raises the head and body and gives the 
former a rotary motion, as in looking on all sides, whence the 

* Dr. Dowling, an Englishman by birth, is pastor of a Baptist Church in New York, 
and author of a work on the Christian Martyrs. 

t A Universalist preacher in Brooklyn, N. Y., of marked talent, and much respected 
»nd esteemed by all who know him. 

Fig. 73. 


French name given to the faculty by Spurzheim — Circonspeo 
tion, to look around one's self. 

3. Function. — It is the function of Cautiousness to give 
prudence, watchfulness, carefulness, and provision against 
danger. It is one of the restraining powers of the mind, and 
prevents the propelling forces of our nature from plunging us 
into difficulty and danger. Persons having it well developed 
are habitually on their guard; they know that it is more diffi- 
cult to sustain than to acquire reputation, and, consequently, 
every new undertaking is prosecuted as carefully as the first. 
They look forward to all possible dangers, and are anxious to 
anticipate every occurrence ; they ask advice of every one, 
and often, after having received much counsel, remain unde- 
cided. They put great faith in the observation, that of a 
hundred misfortunes which befall us, ninety-nine arise from 
our own fault. Such persons never break any article; they 
may pass their lives in pruning trees, or in working with 
sharp tools, without cutting themselves. 

4. Excess and Perversion. — When the fiiculty is toft 
largely developed, with moderate Hope, it produces doubts, 
irresolution, and wavering, and may lead to absolute in- 
capacity for any decisive and vigorous action. A great and 
involuntary activity cf it produces panic — a state in which 
the mind is hurried away by an irresistible emotion of fear, 
for which no adequate cause exists. 

5. Illustrative Examples. — In armies and other large 
bodies of men, a panic becomes contagious, and results in the 
abandonment of everything else in obedience to the one 
absorbing instinct of self-preservation. A large development 
of this organ, combined with large Destructiveness, predis- 
poses to suicide. Dr, Andrew Combe examined a number of 
suicides in the Morgue (dead-house) of Paris, and found in 
them Hope generally small, with Cautiousness and Destruc- 
tiveness large. Cautiousness i.s larger in the Germans, English, 
and Scotch than in the Celtic French or Irish. 

6. Cultivation. — T>\ an intellectual effort, one may arouse 
Cautiousness into activity mil promote its development. The 
disastrous results of indiscretion, carelessness, rashness, and 



recklessness should be kept before the mind, and a r^ore 
prudent and watchful policy resolved upon. Causality and 
Firmness should be called to the aid of weak Cautiousness. 

7. Restraint. — Causality and Firmness should be brought 
into action to restrain as well as to encourage this faculty. 
Reason should tell us that excessive or over-active Cautious- 
ness inclines us to magnify dangers, and to be irresolute and 
over-anxious, and we should therefore try to adopt a more 
bold and decided course of action than mere feeling would 
suggest. Combativeness and Destructiveness may also be 
made to partially offset this faculty, and promote a more 
daring spirit. 

Do good, and thou shalt have praise. 

1. Location. — Approbativeness is located on the upper 
and back part of the top side-head, at the point marked 12 in 


Fig. 75— R. Hanks, D.D.* 

Fig. 76.— John P. Durdin, D.D.t 

the diagram (fig. 23). "When large, it produces a remarkable 
fullness and breadth in the upper and back part of the head. 
On the skull, it commences about half an inch from the lamb- 
doidal suture. 

* Dr. Hanks is an impressive and eloquent preacher of the Protestant Methodist 

t Dr. Inirbin is one of the most powcinii and controlling leadors of the Methodist 
Episcopal denomination in the United States. 


2. Physiognomical Sign. — Approbativeness manifests itself 
in the face by the lifting of the upper lip, sometimes exposing 
the teeth, as shown in fig. 17. It is generally largely de- 
veloped in the French, the Irish, and especially in the Negro. 
The latter is no less remarkable for his love of praise than for 
* showing his teeth. 

3. Function. — This faculty gives regard for 
character, desire to excel and be esteemed, love 
of praise, ambition, affability, and politeness. 
Mr. Combe calls it " the drill master of society;" 
and in this capacity it leads to acts of moral 
tendency, as our ill feelings and selfishness are 
restrained to please others; but it does not 
Fia. 77. decide what actions are praiseworthy and what 
are not, but merely judges these actions in reference to some 
conventional standard set up by custom or by the dictates of 
the other faculties, and praises or blames accordingly as they 
do or do not conform to this standard. 

4. Perversion. — ISTo faculty is more prone to run into 
excess than Approbativeness. It leads to self-praise, vanity, 
and egotism. The diversified forms in which its activity 
appears are well exposed in Young's " Love of Fame." 

" The love of praise howe'er conceal' d by art, 
Reigns, more or less, and slows in every heart: 
The proud to gain it, toils on toils endure ; 
The modest shun it, but to make it sure. 
O'er globes and scepters, now on thrones it swells, 
Now trims the midnight lamp in college cells ; 
'Tis Tory, Whig ; it plots, prays, preaches, pleads, 
Harangues in senates, squeaks in masquerades; 
It aids the dancer's heel, the writer's head, 
And heaps the plain with mountains of the dead ; 
Nor ends with life, but nods in sable plumes, 
Adorns our hearse, and flatters on our tombs." 

5, Illtjstratve Examples. — The French are remarkable 
for a large development of this organ, while the English are 
more noted for Self-Esteem. The influence of Approbative- 
ness shows itself in the maimers, institutions, and daily litera- 
ture of France in an extraordinary degree. Compliments 
and praises are the current coin of conversation, and glory 


the condiment of the feast of life. Americans also generally 
have the faculty largely developed. 

Approbativeness is generally more active in woman than in 
man, shown in her greater love for display, fashions, etc., and 
it has been observed that a greater number of women than 
of men become insane through excess of this feeling. 

6. Cultivation. — One who finds himself too careless of 
reputation and of the opinions of his fellow-men, should strive 
intellectually to arrive at a true estimate of the real value of 
public opinion, and of the importance of one's character and 
standing among men. The cultivation of manners and the 
strict observance of the etiquette of social intercourse will 
help to develop the organ of Approbativeness. 

7. Restraint. — To restrain Approbativeness, one must 
cultivate Self-Esteem and Conscientiousness, and, doing what 
is right, try to not care too much what people say about it. 
Have less fear of " Mrs. Grundy." Too great sensitiveness 
to praise and blame must be overcome by allowing reason to 
show how little either is generally worth, and by recalling to 
mind how often the feelings have been hurt in the past, when, 
as has been afterward seen, there was no real cause. 

What ye know, the game do I know also ; I am not inferior unto you. 

1. Location. — The organ of Self-Esteem is situated at the 
back part of the top-head (13, fig. 23), where the ooronal sur- 
face begins to decline toward the back-head, and a little 
above the posterior angle of the parietal bones. When it is 
large, the head rises far upward and backward from the ear 
in the direction of it, as in fig. 78. Fig. 79 shows the form of 
the head when Self-Esteem is small. 

2. Natural Laxguasge.— The action of this faculty throws 
the head back in the direction of its phrenological organ, as 
shown in fig. 81, and gives a dignified and upright carriage 
to the body. Fig. 80 shows the attitude induced by a 
deficiency of the faculty. 

3. Function. — The function of Self-Estecn is to inspire self- 



respect, self-reliance, independence, dignity, magnanimity, 
pride of character, and an aspiring and ruling disposition. 



-Gen. E. Kirbt Sjiitii.* 

Fig. 79.— Gen. Rosecrans.t 

Its due endowment produces only excellent results, and we 
find that in society, that individual is uniformly treated with 
most lasting and sincere respect who esteems himself so 

Fig. SO.— Deference. 

Fig. 81.— Dignity. 

highly as to scorn every mean action. By communicating a 
feeling of self-respect, it frequently and effectually aids the. 

* A noted "Confederate" officer in the American Civil War. 

t Distinguished in the army s| i.:j Ufcioa in the American Civil War. 



Fig. S2.— Pride. 

moral sentiments in resisting temptation to vice. Several 
individuals in whom the organ is large, have stated to us that 
they have been restrained from forming improper connections 
by an overwhelming sense of the degradation which would 
result from doing so ; and that they believed their better 
principles might have yielded to temptation had it not been 
for the support afforded to them by 
the instinctive impulses of Self- 

4. Perversion. — Perverted Self- 
Esteem manifests itself in insupport- 
able pride, hauteur, forwardness, 
superciliousness, imperiousness, and 
an insatiable love of power. 

5. Deficiency. — A predisposition 
tc excessive humility and a painful 
lack of self-confidence are the results 
of deficient Self-Esteem. A person 
thus constituted has no reliance upon 
himself* if the public or his superiors frown, he is unable to 
pursue even a virtuous course, through diffidence of his own 
judgment. Inferior talents, combined with a strong endow- 
ment of Self-Esteem, are often crowned with far higher suc- 
cess than more splendid abilities joined with this sentiment in 
a feebler degree. 

6. Illustrative Example. — At Heidelberg Dr. Gall saw a 
girl of eighteen, of a remarkable character. Every word or 
gesture in the least familiar revolted her. She called on God 
on every occasion, as if he took a special interest in her affairs. 
When she spoke, assurance and presumption were painted in 
her features ; she carried her head high, and a little backward, 
and all the movements of her head expressed pride. She was 
net capable of submission ; when in n. passion, she was violent, 
and disposed to proceed to all extremities. Although only 
the daughter of a quill merchant, she spoke her native lan- 
guage with extraordinary purity, and communicated with 
none but persons of a rank superior to her own. 

7. Cultivation. — By assuming the attitude of Self-Esteem 


and trying to imbibe its spirit at tbe same time, the faculty 
may be strengthened and its activity promoted. The too 
low self-valuation which arises from a deficient development 
of this faculty, should be corrected by bringing prominently 
into view the best traits of one's character and reflecting on 
the exalted nature of those endowments. " I am a man," 
Black Hawk said to Jackson. " I am a man," or " I am a 
woman," should be the proud assertion of the too modest 
reader, who must learn to hold up the head in all company. 
A correct phrenological delineation of character will do more 
than anything else to correct false, and especially too low 
estimates of character. 

8. Restraint. — To restrain forwardness, pride, excessive 
self-confidence, and an overbearing, domineering spirit, culti- 
vate the moral sentiments, and especially Veneration, seeking 
in religion that grace which maketh humble like a little child. 
Correct too high estimates of yourself by the exercise of 
reason and the help of Phrenology. 

XVII. firmness. (14.) 

Be ye steadfast, immovable ; always abounding in the work of the Lord. 

1. Location. — The organ of this faculty is situated at the 
back part of the coronal region (14, fig. 23), on the median 
line, and between Veneration and Self Esteem. Figs. 85 and 
86 show how its degree of development affects the form of 
the skull. 

2. Physiognomical Signs. — The facial sign of Firmness, 
corresponding with the situation of its phrenological organ, is 
the perpendicular straightness or convexity and stiffness of 
the center of the upper lip (fig. 87). To tell a man to "keep 
ii stiff upper lip" is equivalent to telling him to be firm — to 
hold his ground. This faculty has also one of its most strik- 
ing indications in the size and strength of the cervical 
vertebra, or bones of the neck, and in the perpendicularity 
of the neck itself. 

2. Natural Language. — The action of Firmness throws 
the head, face, and neck into the line of the phrenological 


organ of the faculty. When it predominates, it gives a 
peculiar hardness to the manner and stiffness and uprightness 


Fig. 83.— F. W. Hedge. D.D.* 

Fig. 84.— W. H. Ryder, D.D.t 

to the gait (the foot being brought doAvn heavily on the heel), 
and an emphatic tone to the voice. 

4. Function. — Firmness imparts stability of character, 
tenacity of will, perseverance, and an aversion to change. It 
seems to have no relation to external things, its influence 
terminating on the mind itself, and it adds only a quality to 
the manifestations of the other powers: thus, acting along 

Fig. 85.— Large. 

Fig. 86.— Small. 

with Combativeness, it produces determined bravery ; with 
Veneration, sustained devotion ; and with Conscientiousness, 

* A Unitarian preacher and an author of reputation. His scholarship is of the high- 
est order. Noted for determination and str:-,i?tli of will. 

t A Universalis minibler of high culture, fervid eloquence, and great kindnesB of 


inflexible integrity. It gives perseverance, however, in acting 
only on the other faculties which are possessed in an available 

5. Illustrative Examples. — Firmness is much larger in 
isome nations than in others. The English have it much 
more fully developed than the French. The latter, under 
the influence of large Combativeness and moderate Cautious- 
ness, make lively and impetuous charges, shouting 
and cheering as they advance; but if repulsed or 
steadily resisted, their ardor abates, they become 
discouraged, and any serious reverse is apt to 
become a total defeat ; while the English, on the 
other hand, are less impetuous and dashing, but 
hold steadily to their purpose, and if repulsed, 
return undiscouraged to the charge, or, if com- 
pelled to fall back, obstinately dispute the 
enemy's advance step by step. .Americans of 

the Northern States resemble the English in this respect, 
though they unite with this persevering steadfastness some 
of the impetuosity of the French. The men of the South 
have less Firmness and show less persistency ; acting more 
under the influence of Self-Esteem and Approbativeness, they 
fight for glory, and refuse to yield through pride rather than 
from genuine steadfastness. 

6. Cultivation. — Firmness may be developed by a well- 
considered and wise assumption of positions which are clearly 
important to be held. The faculty is then stimulated by 
Conscientiousness, Self-Esteem, and Approbativeness. One 
must constantly remember his weakness in this matter, and 
strive to have a mind of his own, and to overcome difficulties 
instead of turning to avoid them. 

1. Restraint. — To restrain Firmness, we must subject it to 
the influence of reason and the moral sentiments. Listen, at 
least, to advice, and if good try to profit by it. The needless 
losses and humiliations to which obstinacy and an unreason- 
able persistence in a line of conduct proved to be wrong or 
impracticable lias subjected us, should be constantly recalled 
to miud when we are tempted to be willful or si.ubhQrn* 



Till I die I will not remove mine integrity from me. My righteousness I hold fast, 
and will not let it go. 

1. Location. — The organ of Conscientiousness is situated 
on the posterior and lateral parts of the coronal region (at the 
point marked 15 in fig. 23), upward from the fore part of 


Fig. 8S.— The Good Boy. 

Fig. 89.— The Bad Bot. 

Cautiousness and forward from Approhativeness. On the 
skull, its -place is on the upper and forward part of the parietal 
bone, about three inches above the opening of the ear, and 
about one and a half inches from the middle line of the head. 
When large, with deficient Firmness, it gives the head the 
shape shown in fig. 90. Fig. 91 represents it small. 

2. Function. — Conscientiousness imparts a perception and 
love of right, an innate sense of accountability, and a dis- 

position to fulfill promises, 

speak the truth, and strive for 

purity and moral excellence. 

A sense of guilt, repentance, 
H and desire to reform also arise 

from its action. It is a regu- 
lator of all the other facilities. 

If Combativeness and Destruc- 
tiveness be too active, Conscientiousness prescribes a limit 
to their indulgence; it permits defense, but no malicious ag- 
gression; if Acquisitiveness urge too keenly, it reminds us of 

Fig. 90. 

Fig. 91. 


the right? of others ; if Benevolence tend tow «*rd profusion, 
tins faculty issues the admonition, Be just before you are 
generous ; if Ideality aspire to its high delights, when duty 
requires laborious exertions in an humble sphere, Conscien- 
tiousness supplies the curb, and bids the soaring spirit restrain 
its wing. 

When this faculty is powerful, the individual is disposed 
to regulate his conduct by the nicest sentiments of justice ; 
there is an earnestness, integrity, and directness in his manner 
which inspire us with confidence and give us a conviction of 
his sincerity. Such an individual desires to act justly from 
the love of justice, unbiased by fear, interest, or any sinister 

3. Deficiency. — Small Conscientiousness leaves the pro- 
pensities without adequate control. The feeling of justice 
being wanting, the mind does not furnish reasons to oppose 
to the influence of the baser inclinations. A deficiency of 
Conscientiousness in connection with large Secretiveness, 
especially when the latter is aided by Ideality and Wonder, 
produces a tendency to magnifying so strong in some cases 
that the unfortunate victim of a bad organization finds it 
quite difficult to overcome it. 

4. Illustrative Examples. — The sentiment of truth is 
found by the English judges to be so low in the Africans, the 
Hindoos, and the aboriginal Americans, that such individuals 
are not received as witnesses in the colonial courts ; and it is 
a curious fact, that a defect in the organ of Conscientiousness 
is a reigning feature ii> the skulls of these nations. 

5. Cultivation. — A constant effort to keep a sense of right 
and wrong uppermost in our minds in all our transactions, 
and to make everything subservient to justice and moral 
principle, will induce activity and development in the organ, 
■._*nd make doing right more and more easy and pleasant. 
Our motto should be: "Let justice be done though the 
heavens fall." 

6. Restraint. — There is seldom great need to restrain this 
faculty, but sometimes it makes one in whom it is largely 
developed and morbidly active censorious, and too exacting 


and fault-finding in respect to others, .and liable to an uncalled- 
for sense of guilt and unworthiness in regard to himself. 
These perverted manifestations should he met by cultivating 
Benevolence, Self-Esteem, and Firmness, and by correcting 
intellectually the false estimates of sentiment and feeling. 



"Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound 
In hope. 

1. Location. — The organ of Hope is situated on the side 
of the top-head (16, fig. 23), on a perpendicular line drawn 


Fig. 92.— Bessie Inglis.* 

Fig. 93.— Edward Thomson, D.D.t 

upward from the front part of the ear, and between Marvel- 
ousness and Conscientiousness. 

2. Physiognomical Sign. — Hope elevates the center of 
the eyebrow, opens the eyes wide, and turns them upward. 
It gives an open and pleasant expression to the whole 

3. Function. — In persons with large Hope, "the wish is 
father to the thought." With large Approbativeness, they 
expect to rise to distinction ; with large Acquisitiveness, they 
think they shall become rich. " The sentiment of Hope," 

* An English authoress and a very popular public reader. 

t A Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, eminent as a writer and a preacher 


Spurzheim truly says, " is indeed necessary to the happiness 
of mankind in almost every situation. It often produces 
more satisfaction than even the success of our projects. Its 
activity, however, varies greatly in different individuals ; 
while some easily despair, others are always elated and find 
everything for the best ; constant hope sustains them in the 
midst of difficulties ; the first plan for accomplishing any 
object having failed, only stimulates them to form new ones, 
which they confidently expect will succeed. Those who are 
everlastingly scheming, or building castles in the air, possess 
this faculty in a high degree. It seems to induce a belief in 
the possibility of whatever the other faculties desire, without 
producing conviction ; for this results from reflection." 

This sentiment is not confined to the business of this life, 
but, passing the limits of the present existence, inspires ex- 
pectations of a future state, and a belief, hope, and trust in 
the immortality of the soul. 

4. Excess axd Deficiency. — Hope, like any other faculty, 
may be too strong or too weak. In the former case it induces 
us to expect things which are unreasonable, not founded on 
probability, or altogether impossible. When too feeble, on 
the contrary, especially if Cautiousness be large, it is apt to 
produce lowness of spirits, melancholy, and even despair. 

5. Cultivation. — Lively youthful society, and the com- 
panionship of those who are cheerful and buoyant, has a 
tendency to promote Plope and develop the organ in those 
who are naturally too easily discouraged and apt to look on 
the dark side. Such ones should remember, too, that " every 
cloud has a silver lining," and that though "grief may endure 
for a night," " joy cometh with the morning." JVil desperanr 
dura — never despair. 

6. Restraint. — To hold in check excessive expectation, 
cool judgment must be kept always on guard to correct the 
over-estimates of this sentiment. In business, persons in 
whom Hope is too large or active, should adopt and strictly 
adhere to the cash principle, both in buying and in selling, as 
there is always a great liability to buy too much, and sell 
without sufficient security for the payment, 


We through the Spirit wait for the hope of righteousness by faith. 

1. Location". — The organ of Spirituality (17, fig. 23) is 
situated immediately above Ideality, iu the lateral parts of. 
the anterior region of the top-head. 


Pig. 94.— P. N. Ltnch, D.D.* Fig. 95.— H. W. Bellows, D.D.t 

2. Physiognomical Sign. — Large and active Spirituality 
gives a singularly elevated expression 
of countenance. The eyelids are 
lifted and the eyes often turned ob- 
liquely upward. When the excite- 
ment of the orsran results in the feeling 
of wonder, the expression becomes 
like that of fig. 96. 

3. Fuxctiox. — The function of this 
organ is to give a perception of 
\ spiritual things, faith in the unseen, 
and an intuitive knowledge of what 
is true and good, with a prophetic 
insight and an internal consciousness 
of immortality and a supersenuous existence. 

4. Perversiox. — Perverted Spirituality leads to super- 

* Dr. Lynch, Roman Catholic Bishop of Charleston. S. C, holds a hi^-h positi n in 
his church. He is noted for his learning, kindness of heart, and spiritual-miudcduess. 
t Dr. Bellows is a distinguished Unitarian minister of New York. 

Fig. 96.— Wonder. 


stition, fear of ghosts, credulity, and excessive love of the 
wonderful. There are many disposed to believe in dreams, 
sorcery, amulets, magic, astrology, in the mystic influence of 
spirits and angels, in the power of the devil, in second-sight, 
and in miracles and incomprehensible representations of all 
sorts. Some also are disposed to have visions, and to see 
ghosts, demons, and phantoms. This sentiment gains credence 
to the true and also to the false prophet, aids superstition, 
but is also essential to the belief in the doctrines of refined 
religion. It is more or less active, not only in different in- 
dividuals, but also in whole nations; its functions are often 
disordered, constituting one form of insanity called demono- 

5. Illustrative Examples. — A gentleman who moved in 
the best society in Paris asked Dr. Gall to examine his head. 
The doctor's first remark was, "You sometimes- see visions, 
and believe in apparitions." The gentleman started from his 
chair in astonishment, and said that he had frequent visions ; 
but that never, up to this moment, had he spoken on the sub- 
ject to any human being, through fear of being set down as 
absurdly credulous. 

Spirituality was largely developed in Joan of Arc, Cromwell, 
Tasso, Swedenborg, Stilling, Wesley, Burns, Scott, Hawthorne, 
and Laura Bridgeman, and correct portraits of them show a 
marked fullness in the region assigned to its organ. 

6. Cultivation. — To cultivate this faculty, the attention 
■should be frequently directed to that class of subjects upon 

which it is legitimately exercised — the Deity, a future exist- 
ence, intuitive perceptions, premonitions, etc. Meditations 
on divine things, the reading of religious works, and attend- 
ance upon religious meetings will aid in its development, if 
right use be made of such opportunities. The mind should 
be kept open to the intuitive perception of truth, and all super. 
sensual impressions and premonitions be heeded. 

7. Restraint. — When it becomes necessary to hold in 
check the too active manifestations of Spiritualit}^ the 
restraining organs of Cautiousness, Self-Esteem, and Firmness 
must be called to the support of reason, and the mind with- 


drawn from the constant contemplation of the spiritual and 
fixed upon the real, tangible things of this life. Strict atten- 
tion tq practical matters, and a resolute performance of the 
common duties of life will help to give a healthy tone to the 



Humble yourselves in the eight of the Lord, ami he shall lift you up. 

1. Location. — The organ of Veneration is situated in the 
middle of the coronal region (18, fig. 23), between Benevo- 
lence and Firmness. Fig. 99 shows it large, and fig. 100 small 


Fig. 97.— Dr. Pusey.* Pig. 98.— Geo. EDWAUDS.t 

2. Physiognomical Sign.— Sir Charles Bell says, "When 
rapt in devotion- 
al feelings, when 
all outward im- 
pressions are un- 
gg^. heeded, the eyes 
are raised by an 
action neither 
taught nor acquired. Instinctively we bow the body and 

Fig. 99.— Large. 

Fig. 100— Small. 

* Rev. Edward B. Pnsey, D.D., is a distinguished " high church " Episcopalian 
clergyman, noted as a leader of the ritualistic party in the English Church. 
t An English naturalist, in whom Veneration is somewhat wanting. 


raise the eyes in prayer, as though the visible heavens wera 
the seat of God. In the language of the poet — 

Prayer is the upward glancing of the eye, 
When none but God is near. 

1 1 will lift up mine eyes unto the hills,' the Psalmist says, 
from whence cometh my help.' " 

3. Natural Language. — The natural language of this 
faculty carries the head upward in the direction of the organ. 
The voice is soft, subdued, reposing, and adoring. The 
greatest difference is perceptible in the tones and manner of 
prayer of clergymen in whom the organ is large, compared 
with those in whom it is small ; there is a soft breathing 
fervor of devotion in the former, and a cold reasoning formal- 
ity in the latter. One reaches the head, the other touches 
the heart. 

4. Function. — The faculty of Veneration produces rever- 
ence in general, and especially for religion and things sacred ; 
adoration of a Supreme Being ; a disposition to pray and 
observe religious rites and respect for whatever is perceived 
to be great and good. It is the source of natural religion, 
and of that tendency to worship a superior Power which 
manifests itself in all well-organized men. The faculty, how- 
ever, produces merely an emotion, and does not form ideas 
of the object to which adoration should be directed. 

5. Perversion. — This faculty, when unenlightened, may 
lead to every kind of religious absurdity, as worshiping beasts 
and stocks and stones. Many African negroes, American 
Indians, and even Hindoos, have but a moderate intellectual 
development compared with Europeans, and their superstitions 
are more gross. Socrates did not assent to the popular 
religious errors of the Greeks, and in the ancient busts of him 
he is represented with a splendid forehead. Veneration is 
large also in negroes, who are prone to superstition. 

Nothing is more common in the hospitals for the insane, 
says Pinel, than cases of alienation produced by devotional 
feelings excessively exalted, by conscientious scruples carried 
to prejudicial excesses, or by religious terror. As this kind 
©f insanity, Dr, Gall says, is often present without derange- 


ment of the other faculties, physicians ought to have inferred 
that it is connected with disease of a particular part of the 

6. Cultivation. — Attendance on religious worship, daily 
family devotions, and association with persons religiously dis- 
posed, and especially those whose character is such as to 
command great respect, will do much to develop reverential 
feelings. Respect to all superiors should he cultivated, and 
the mind often led to the contemplation of the greatness and 
goodness of God. 

7. Restraint. — In those rare cases where there is danger 
of this sentiment running into the forms of fanaticism and 
religious monomania, measures should be taken to withdraw 
the mind from the constant contemplation of subjects on 
which the mind is warped, and to counteract the perverted 
tendency by enlisting interest in worldly matters and by the 
exercise of the reasoning faculties in relation to it. It should 
be remembered, in such cases, that worship is not the only 
business of life, but that while on the earth we have duties 
connected with the earth to perform, and which we are not 
at liberty to neglect. A balanced mind is the best. 

Be ye kind one to another, tender-hearted, forgiving one another. 

1. Location. — The organ of Benevolence is situated in the 
middle of the fore part of the top-head. Its location is marked 
with its proper number (19) in our diagram (fig. 23). On the 
skull, its place is just forward of the fontanel, or what is com- 
monly called the opening of the head. The fontanel is at the 
meeting of the coronal and sagittal sutures. In the young 
child it is cartilaginous ; but from the time of birth it begins 

"to contract, and is generally completely ossified and closed 
between the second and third years. When large, it gives 
great elevation to the fore part of the top-head,. as represented 
in fig. 103. Fig. 104 shows it small. 

2. Physiognomical Sign. — The action of the muscular 
fibers, which, passing down from the middle of the forehead 



over the phrenological organ of the faculty, are inserted neat 
the root of the nose, elevates the inner extremities of the 

Fig. 101.— S. H. Westox, D.D.* 

Fig. 102.— Charles Fleming^ 

brows, sometimes causing, when strong, short horizontal 
wrinkles in the center of the forehead, and indicates active 
Benevolence — kindness tianslated into deeds. Persons with 
this sign well developed will be found not merely sympathetic, 
but ready to take hold and help those in need of assistance. 

Men have more of this working Benevolence than 

women, and it is proper they should have, as their 

power to help is greater ; but 

women are more sympathetic and 

more readily touched by pity. 
3. Natural Language. — It 

should be observed, also, that the 

activity of this faculty relaxes the 
features and gives an open, genial, benignant, and pleasing 
expression to the whole countenance. See the contrast in 

* Dr. Weston is an Episcopal clergyman of JSTew York, noted for his kind and sym- 
pathetic disposition. 

+ Mr. Fleming is thus described by the author of " The Autobiography of a Phre- 
nologist :" "I can truly say that he was one of the worst characters I ever knew, and 
ignorant to a degree that perfectly amazed ma. He had a small head, which swelled 
out above and behind the ears. His forehead was 'villainously low,' and retreating, 
and the vertex of the head was very high, but rapidly declined toward the forehead, 
and also sloped downward toward the parietal bones. His harshness and cruelty 
-tlmost exceeded belief." He would not " spare the rod," but use it freely. 

Fig. 103. 

Fig. 104. 


Fig. 105.— A Miser. 

Fig. 106.— A Liberal. 

this respect, between the liberal, generous man and the 
pinched-up miser (figs. 105 and 106). 

4. Function. — St. Paul gives a beautiful description of the 
genuine character of this sentiment in his account of Christian 
charity: "Charity," he says, " suffereth long and is kind; 
charity envieth not ; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed 
np," etc. Christ also illustrates it in the parable of the good 
Samaritan. It gives kindness, sympathy, a desire to make 

others happy, and a 
self-sacrificing disposi- 
tion. It produces liber- 
ality of sentiment to- 
ward all mankind, a 
disposition to love | 
A them, and to dwell on 
/ their virtues rather 
than their vices. A 
person in whom this 
feeling is strong, rarely complains of the ingratitude or heart- 
lessness of others. His goodness provides its own reward. 

5. Perversion. — This sentiment, beautiful as it is in its 
proper action, is, like all others, liable to perversion and 
abuse. It requires to be directed- by Conscientiousness and 
intellect and restrained by Firmness and Cautiousness, other- 
wise it produces abuses. Some men, for instance, give 
with an inconsiderate prodigality, which, while it soon 
deprives them of the means to exercise their Benevolence in 
that way, also fails to effect the degree of good that the same 
means judiciously applied might have accomplished. That 
individual is best fitted to mature wise plans of charity who 
has a large endowment of this sentiment combined with 
powerful intellectual faculties and a good degree of Cautious 
ness and Firmness. 

6. Illustrative Examples. — Murderers generally have the 
forehead "villainously low" in the region of Benevolence. 
Caligula, Caracalla, Norn. Catherine de Medicis, Danton, 
Robespierre, and all individuals and tribes of men remarkable 
for cruelly, as the Caribs, the North American Indians, etc. ? 


are remarkable for the same characteristic. Foreheads re- 
markably lofty in the region assigned to the organ of Benevo- 
lence are, on the contrary, among the leading traits of persons 
distinguished for their benevolent feelings. Trajan, Marcus 
Aurelius, Henri Quatre, Father Mathew, Oberlin, Jeannin, 
Malesherbes, Beecher, and Howard may be referred to as 
illustrating this development. 

7. Cultivation. — One in whom this sentiment is not suf- 
ficiently strong, should read and reflect upon the life of Christ, 
and of such men as Oberlin and Howard, and try to appreciate 
their self-sacrificing goodness. They should also strive to be 
less selfish and accustom themselves* co deeds of active benevo- 
lence, giving according to their means as opportunity shall 
offer. The world is not so full of selfishness as such persons 
are apt to think, and they will find that those who are least 
selfish are most happy. 

8. Restraint. — There is no necessity, in general, to restrain 
this sentiment, but it needs the guidance of sound judgment, 
and should be subservient to Conscientiousness. " Be just 
before you are generous." But we may be both. 


Skillful to work in gold, in silver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and in timber; in 
purple, in blue, in fine linen, and in crimson ; also to grave any manner of graving. 

1. Location. — The organ of Constructiveness (20, fig. 23) 
is situated just forward of Acquisitiveness, the location of 
which has been already described. On the skull, its place is 
at the inferior and outer parts of the frontal bone immediately 
above the spheno-temporal sutures, and behind and above 
the outer angle of the orbit. Its development gives breadth 
to the head above the zygomatic arch. Fig. 109 shows it 
large, and fig. 110 small. "If the base of the brain be nar- 
row, this organ," Mr. Combe says, " holds a situation a little 
higher than usual, and there will then frequently be found a 
slight depression at the external angle of the eye, between 
the zygomatic process and the organ in question." 

2. Function.— By its means birds build nests, rabbits bur- 
row, the beaver makes its hut, and man constructs whatever 


his necessities, his comfort, his tastes, or his higher sentiments 
require, from the hovel and the tent to the palace and the 
temple. "It invents and produces fortifications, ships, the 


Fig. 107.— John Scott, D.D.* Fig. 108.— Geo, W. Eaton, D.D., LL.D.t 

engines of war, the implements of manufactures, instruments 
of all kinds, furniture, clothes, and toys; it is essential not 
only in every mechanical profession, but in all employments 
that in any way require manual nicety, as the arts of drawing, 
engraving, writing, carving, and sculpture. 

3. Perversion. — Large Constructiveness not sufficiently 
controlled and guided by the higher intellectual faculties, 
sometimes leads to great waste of time and labor in attempts 
to invent perpetual motions or 
other impossible machines; with 
deficient Conscientiousness, it may 
employ itself in making counterfeit 
money, false keys, and other dis- 
honest contrivances. 

4. Illustrative Examples. — 
The organ of this faculty is seen to be largely developed in 
busts and portraits of Michael Angelo, Canova, Brunei, 
Whitney, Fulton, Franklin, Watt, Smeaton, Stephenson, 

* A leading minister of the Pittsburg Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and editor of the Methodist Recorder. 

t Ex-President of Madison University, New York, and a Baptist minister of great 
earnestness and piety. 

Fig. 109. 

Fig. 110. 


Howe, Morse, and artists, inventors, and builders. It is 
generally large in French, Italian, and American heads — and 
fairly so in the English. 

In the Animals. — Among the lower animals, it is clear 
that the ability to construct is not in proportion to the 
general intelligence ; for the elephant, the dog, and the horse, 
though in sagacity approaching very closely to the more 
imperfect specimens of the human race, never attempt to con- 
struct anything, while the bee, the beaver, and the swallow, 
with far less general intelligence, rival the productions of 
their superiors. Their skulls make plain the reason why. 

5. Cultivation. — The constant use of tools, however awk- 
wardly at first, the study of the mechanic arts, writing, 
drawing, etc., will exercise this organ and promote its 

6. Restraint. — To restrain this faculty is not often neces- 
sary. If its action should lead to the pursuit of mechanical 
chimeras, or to become a mania, it must be kept Avithin due 
bounds by the exercise of the judgment, or, if necessary, 
mechanical pursuits should be abandoned and some calling 
adopted which will bring other faculties more prominently 
into action. 


O Tymp, thon ha?>t said, I am of perfect beauty, thy borders are in the midst of the 
sea, thy builders have perfected thy beauty. 

1. Location. — The organ of Ideality is situated nearly 
along the temporal ridge of the frontal bone (21, fig. 23), 
between Mirthfulness and Sublimity, and directly above Con- 
structiveness. It is here that the last fibers of the temporal 
muscle are inserted. 

2. Function. — This faculty produces a perception and love 
of the beautiful, good taste, refinement, sense of propriety, 
and appreciation of art and poetry. It desires to elevate and 
endow with a splendid excellence every object presented to 
the mind. It stimulates the faculties which form ideas to 
create scenes in which every object is invested with the per- 
fection winch i: delights to contemplate, It is particularly 



valuable to man as a progressive being. It inspires him with 
a ceaseless love of improvement, and prompts him to form and 
realize splendid conceptions. When predominant, it gives a 
manner of feeling and of thinking befitting the regions of 
fancy rather than the abodes of men. Hence those only on 


Fig. 112.— Barnas Sears, D.D.t 

whom it is largely bestowed can possibly be poets ; and 
hence the proverb, " Poeba nascitur, non fit." 

3. Deficiency. — There are persons who can perceive no 
excellence in poetry, painting, or sculpture, and who value 
nothing merely for its beauty. Such persons declaim against 
ornament in dress, furniture, architecture, etc., and deem the 
solid and the useful (in its restricted sense) as alone worthy 
of the attention of rational, immortal beings. For such per- 
sons the varied loveliness of hill and dale, of sun and shade, 
of bird and flower is displayed in vain. Wordsworth speaks 
of one of this sort when he says — 

A primrose by a river's brim, 
A yellow primrose was to him, 
And it was nothing more. 

4. Perversion - . — When permitted to take the ascendency 

* Arthur Cleveland Cox, D.D., Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Western New York, 
is distinguished both as a preacher and as a poet. He is considered as the mouth- 
piece of iligh Church Episcopalianism in this country. 

t Dr. Scars lias an enviable reputation as a scholar and an author, as well as in the 
sphere of clerical duty and philanthropic effort. lie is now general agent of tho 
Peabody Southern Educational Fund. 


over the other powers, and to seek its own gratification f-o the 
neglect of the serious duties of life, — or when cultivated to so 
great an excess as to produce a finical and sickly refinement, 
fastidiousness, and distaste for every-day life, it becomes a 
source of great evils. 

5. Illustrative Examples.— If we pass in review the por- 
traits and busts of the poets of all ages, Ave shall find the con- 
figuration of head produced by large Ideality common to 
them all ; as in Pindar, Euripides, Sophocles, Heraclides, 
Plautus, Terence, Virgil, Tibullus, Ovid, Horace, Juvenal, 
Boccacio, Ariosto, Aretin, Tasso, Milton, Boileau, J. B. 
Rousseau, Pope, Young, Gorsset, Voltaire, Goethe, Klopstock, 
Wieland, Richter, "Wordsworth, Tennyson, Bryant, Long" 
fellow, etc. Dr. Bailly, in a letter, dated Rome, 30th May, 
1822, addressed to Dr. Brayer, says : " You may tell Dr. Gall 
that I have a mask of Tasso, taken from nature, and that 
although part of the organ of poetry be cut off, nevertheless the 
lateral breadth of the cranium in this direction is enormous." 

Shakspeare illustrates the poetical manifestation of Ideality, 
in connection with Sublimity, in the following lines : 

" I have bediramed 
The noon-tide eun, call'd forth the mutinous winds, 
And 'tween the green sea and the azured vault 
Set roaring war ; to the dread rattling thunder 
Have I giv'n fire, and rifted Jove's stout oak 
With his own holt ; the strong hased promontory 
Have I made shake, and by the spurs pluck'd up 
The pine and cedar." 

6. Cultivation. — One who desires to cultivate this faculty 
should, in the first place, carefully avoid all low and vulgar 
habits, associates, and surroundings, and make it a point to 
keep good company, be scrupulously neat, and as tasteful as he 
knows how in dress, surround himself, if possible, with works 
of art, and practice the best style in conversation and manners. 
He should as an additional means study poetry, art, and 
general literature, and try to appreciate beauty in all its forms. 

7. Restraint. — Perfection is not one of the qualities of 
earthly things, and the fastidious and too imaginative must 
try to realize that air castles and ideal men and women are 
rather out of place in a rough practical world like this, 





His pavilion round about him were dark waters and thick clouds of the skies ; the 
Loitl also thundered in the heavens, and the Highest gave his voice. 

1. Location. — The organ of Sublimity is situated on the 
side-head, directly above Acquisitiveness (B, fig. 23), and 
behind Ideality. 

2. Function. — The function of Sublimity is to give percep- 
tion of the grand and sublime in nature, art, and literature — ■ 
to enable us to appreciate mountain scenery, the vastness of 
the ocean, the grandeur of a thunder-storm, the roar of artil- 
lery, the clash of armies, etc., or descriptions and pictures of 
such scenes. It is also an element in religious faith, and 
assists our conceptions of 
God and immortality. It 
co-operates with Ideality in 
the artist and the poet, and 
with Veneration and Spirit- 
uality in the religious wor- 

Sublimity is not recog- 
nized by the European phre- 
nologists, generally, as a 
distinct faculty, but we 
believe it to be so, and con- 
sider its functions determined and its organ fully established. 

3. Cultivation. — The contemplation of mountain scenery, 
the storm-tossed ocean, the roaring cataract, the fiery volcano, 
the reverberating thunder, and whatever else is grand, stu- 
pendous, or sublime, will call out this faculty and aid in the 
development of its organ ; as will thoughts of the infinite 
and eternal, and of God the author of all. 

4. Restraint. — To restrain Sublimity is not often necessary, 
unless a perverted manifestation result in extravagance and 
bombast, which must be held in check by Ideality, Order, 
and the reflective faculties. 

Fig. 113.— Wm. C. Bryant.* 

* The w*41-kno\vu American poet, author of " Thanatopsis" and other poems. 



Follow not that which is evil, but that which is good. 

1. Location. — The organ of Imitation is situated on th« 
side of the top-head, between Ideality and Benevolence* 

Fig. 114.— Rev. Daniel Ballot/.* 

Fig. 115.— Robert Collyer, D.D.t 

When it is large, and Benevolence is only moderate, the 
anterior part of the top-head is nearly level; with Imitation 
and Benevolence both large, we have the handsomely curved 
outline shown in fig. 116; and when Benevolence is large and 
Imitation small, the form is like that represented in fig. 117. 

2. Fuxction. — This faculty gives one an aptitude to copy, 
take pattern, mimic, imitate anything 

seen or heard — to be- 
come, for the time 
being, somebody else 
rather than our own 
proper self. It is es- 
sential to actors, ora- 
tors, painters, sculptors, designers. If it be not well developed 
in them, their representations will be imperfect. 

3. Illustrative Examples. — It is told of Garrick, the 

* A Universalist clergyman of ability, benevolence, and high moral worth. An 
effective preacher. 

t A Unitarian minister, noted for his fervid oratory, great kindness, active benevo« 
lence, and practical common senee. 


Fig. 116. 

Fig. 117. 


great actor, that he possessed such an extraordinary talent 
for mimicry, that, at the court of Louis XV., having seen for 
a moment the king, the Duke d'Aumont, the Duke d'Orleans, 
Messrs. d'Aumont, Brissac, and Richelieu, Prince Soubise, 
and others, he carried off the manner of each of them in his 
recollection. He invited to supper some friends who had 
accompanied him to court, and said, " I have seen the court 
only for an instant, but I shall show you the correctness of 
riiy powers of observation and the extent of my memory;" 
and placing his friends in two files, he retired from the room, 
and, on his immediately returning, his friends exclaimed, 
" Ah ! here is the king, Louis XV., to the life !" He imitated 
in succession all the other personages of the court, who were 
instantly recognized. He imitated not only their walk, gait, 
and figure, but also the expression of their countenances. 

In children, Imitation is more active than in adults. Young 
persons are very apt to copy the behavior of those with whom 
they associate ; and hence the necessity of setting a good 
example before them, even from the earliest years. 

4. Cultivation. — Writing from copy, drawing, making 
patterns and models, attending dramatic exhibitions, taking 
part in private theatricals, and trying (on suitable occasions, 
of course) to mimic our friends and others we meet, will give 
exercise and development to this organ. 

5. Restraint. — A too strong tendency to mimic, copy, or 
plagiarize must be held in check by the exercise of Firmness, 
and the avoidance, so far as possible, of servile imitation of 
all sorts* 

xxvii. mirthfulness. (23.) 

A merry heart doeth good like a medicine 

1. Location. — The organ of Mirthfulness is situated on the 
side of the upper part of the forehead (23, fig. 23), between 
Causality and Ideality. 

2. Physiognomical Signs. — Mirthfulness shows itself on 
the face in a graceful turning upward of the corners of the 
mouth, as in fig. 120. The reader will neod to make but a 
few carefid observations to be convinced (if, indeed, any on© 



doubts it) that there is the relation of cause and effect between 
a disposition to make and enjoy "fun" and the upward cui-v- 

Fig. 118.— Artemus Ward.* Fig. 119.— Kanosh, ax Indian Chief. 

ing of the corners of the mouth. See portraits of Cervantes, 
Rabelais, Sterne, Piron, Neal, and others noted for their large 
development of Mirthfulness. 

3. Function. — The function of Mirthfulness is to enjoy 
sport and gayety, and appreciate the 
witty, the ludicrous, the droll, the comic- 
al, the incongruous, and the eccentric ; 
and we take pleasure in saying that it 
is one of the distinguishing character- 
istics of man. It is not permitted to 
the lower animals to laugh or compre- 
hend the causes of laughter. 

4. Illustratve Example. — Some- 
times Benevolence is exercised in con- 
junction with Mirthfulness; sometimes 
Benevolence and Ideality join with 
Mirthfulness; sometimes Approbativeness; sometimes Secre- 
tiveness and Amativeness; sometimes all together, as when the 

* Mr. Charles F. Browne, better known as " Artemus Ward," was one of the most 
noted of American humorists. Mirthfulness is seen to be very well developed. The 
contrast between his head and that of the Iudiau Chief is very striking, 

Fig. 120.— New Holland 
( Woman. 


Irish hod-carrier rescued the lady's parasol which was being 
blown away, and handing it to her said, " Ocb, if you were 
half as strong as you are handsome, it never would have got 
away from you." She replied, " I do not know which most 
to thank you for, your kindness or your compliment." He 
responded, "Niver mind; a single glance at your beautiful 
bright eyes pays me for both," and he again bent himself to 
his work. The wit of this consists in embracing an oppor- 
tunity to say a brilliant, pleasant thing' without being rude, 
and we admire it more than we laugh at it. 

5. Cultivation. — The facetious aspects of things and sub- 
jects should be contemplated, and the idea that dignity and 
self-respect require perpetual seriousness must be resolutely 
combated. The company of mirthful people should be 
sought, for nothing is more contagious than genuine jollity. 
There is a time to laugh as well as a time to weep, and 
laughter is promotive of health and longevity. The injunc- 
tion to "laugh and grow fat !" is not without a physiological 
reason, nor is the Shaksperian adage, that " a light heart lives 
long," a mere poetical flourish. 

" Jog on, jog on the footpath way 
And merrily hent the style-a ; 
A merry heart goes all the day,— 
Your sad tires in a mile-a." 

6. Restraint. — It is the abuse of this faculty that we 
should strive to avoid, by cultivating sobriety and reverence. 
Benevolence also should be called in to aid us, showing that 
we often give great pain by our disposition to "make fun" 
at the expense of others. 


Come, behold the works of the Lord. 

1. Location. — The organ of Individuality is situated in 
the center of the lower part of the forehead (24, fig. 23) im- 
mediately above the top of the nose. When large, it pro- 
duces breadth, projection, and descent between the eyebrows 
at that part (fig. 121). When small, the eyebrows approach 
closely to each other and lie in a nearly horizontal line. 

2. Physiognomical Sign. — The faculty is represented 



facially by the projection and breadth between the eyebrows 
and the downward curving of the latter at their inner corners. 
3. Function. — This faculty imparts the desire and ability 
to know objects as mere existences, without regard to their 
modes of action or the purposes to which they may be sub- 
, servient. Individuals in whom it is lame will observe and 

Fig. 121.— John Stu^kt Mill.* 

Fig. 122.— Princess Alice. t 

examine an object with intense delight, without the least 
consideration to what it may be applied — a quality of mind 
which is almost incomprehensible to persons in whom this 
organ is small and Causality large. It prompts to observa- 
tion, and is a great element in a genius for those sciences 
which consist in a knowledge of specific existences, such as 
natural history. It leads to giving a sj)ecific form to all the 
ideas entertained by the mind. It also gives the tendency to 
personify nations and phenomena, or to ascribe existence to 
mere abstractions of the mind, such as ignorance, folly, or 

4. Deficiency. — When the organ is deficient, the individual 
fails to observe the things which are around him. He may 

* A distinguished member of the English Parliament, a political economist, author 
cf " A System of Logic," " Principles of PoHtical Economy," " On Liberty," etc. 
t Daughter of C^ueen Victoria of England. 


visit a house and come away without knowing what is in it; 
or walk through the country and observe nothing. The 
external senses may be perfect, but owing to the feebleness 
of Individuality, they may not be called into action for the 
purpose of obtaining knowledge. 

5. Illustrative Examples. — To the artist this organ is of 
great importance. It enables him to give body and substance 
to the conceptions of his other faculties, and confers on him a 
capacity for attending to detail. In the pictures of an artist 
in whose head Individuality is deficient, there is an abstract- 
ness of conception and a vagueness of expression that greatly 
detract from their effect. In the works of an individual in 
whom these organs are large, every object appears full of 
substance and reality; and if he paint portraits, the spectator 
will be so impressed with their individuality, that he will be 
apt to fancy himself acquainted with the original. 

The organ was large in Shakspeare, Sheridan, and Sir 
Walter Scott. It is not so large in the German as Causality, 
it is larger in the English, and still larger in the French and 

6. Cultivation. — Natural history — especially botany — 
anatomy, mineralogy, and chemistry sre departments of 
knowledge particularly fitted to develop this faculty. It is 
also exercised in the study of Phrenology and Physiognomy. 

7. Restraint. — To restrain is seldom, if ever, necessary. 
Reflection may, however, be set as a guard upon Individuality, 
if observation become obtrusive. 

xxix. form. (25.) 

Show them the form of the house, the fashion thereof, ana all the forms thereof. 

1. Location. — The organ of this faculty is situated in thfc 
internal angle of the orbit (25, fig. 23), and if large, pushes 
the eyeball toward the external angle, a little outward and 

2. Physiognomical Sign. — The phrenological organ and 
the physiognomical sign may be considered one in this case. 
It gives breadth between the eyes, as in the accompanying 
portrait of the celebrated Rubens, the artist (fig. 125). 



3. Function. — It is this faculty which enables us to to 
member, and with the aid of Constructiveness to reproduce^ 


Fig. 123.— Rev. W. H. Pendleton.* 

Fig. 124.— Rev. Sidney A. Corey, t 

the forms of persons and things — to make patterns, models, 
pictures, statues, etc., and to describe persons, places, and 
objects of all sorts. It disposes us also to give figure to every 
being and conception of our minds, as to God, to death, to 
hope. It is essential to painters, sculptors, and architects, 

and very important to the phre- 
nologist and physiognomist. 

4. Illustrative Examples. 
— The celebrated Cuvier owed 
much of his success as a com-, 
parative anatomist to this 
organ. De Candolle mentions 
that "his memory was par- 
ticularly remarkable in what 
related to forms, considered in 
the widest sense of the word ; 
the figure of an animal, seen in 
reality or in drawing, never 
left his mind, and served him as a point of comparison for 
all similar objects-" This organ, and also the organs lvmo- 

* A Baptist minister. distinguished as rti orator, and an advocate of the American 
Bible Union. See now broad between, and how full the eye I 
t A Baytist minister, noted as au olo^uwut uuU earnest preacher and lecturer. 


along the superciliary ridge, were largely developed in his 

Mr. Audubon says of the late Mr. Bewick, the most eminent 
wood-engraver whom England has produced : " His eyes were 
placed farther apart than those of any man I have ever seen." 

5. Cultivation. — The best way to cultivate the organ of 
Form is to study such sciences as Phrenology, Physiognomy, 
botany, etc., and accustom one's self to constant observation 
of the configuration of everything presented to the eye. 

6. Restraint. — To restrain is not necessary. 

xxx. size. (26.) 

To measure Jerusalem, to see what is the breadth thereof and the length tt»H£of. 


Fig. 120.— Edward E. Ames, D.D.* 

Fig. 127.— Richard Fuller, D.D.t 

1. Location. — The organ of Size is placed at the internal 
extremity of the arch of the eyebrows (26, fig. 23), on each 
side of Individuality. 

2. Function. — The faculty of Size, as its name Implies, 
gives the power of determining the magnitude of objects, 
ability to measure by the eye and appreciate proportion, and 
to detect any departure from it. It is important to every 
one, but particularly so to geometricians, architects, oarpen- 

* Edward Raymond Ames, D.D., a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in 
noted for his devotion and for business sagacity in the affairs of his denomination, 
t An eminent Baptist clergyman of Baltimore, much respected and loved by his people* 



tors, machinists, and artists. In union with Locality it give* 
conceptions of perspective. 

3. Cultivation. — This organ may be exercised by constant 
attempts to estimate the length, breadth, and other dimensions 
of objects, verifying observation by measurement. The same 
ptudies recommended for the cultivation of Form will be 
useful in this case also, as they involve size and proportion as 
will as configuration. 

4. Restraint. — To restrain is not necessary. 

xxxi. weight. (27.) 

Who weighed the mountains in scales and the hills in a balance. 


Fig. 128.— Isaac Ferris, D.D., LL.D.* Fig. 129.— Fjch. S. Storks, Jr., D.D.t 

1. Location. — The organ of "Weight is located on the 
superciliary ridge, about one third of its extent from the root 
of the nose (27, fig. 23). When large, it sometimes depresses 
the eyebrow at that point, as may be seen in our likeness cf 
Brunei, the distinguished English engineer (fig. 130). 

2. Function. — The faculty of Weight gives a perception 
of the laws of gravity, motion, etc, and ability to apply them, 

* An eminent minister of the Reformed Church and Chancellor of the University of 
New York. 

t Dr. Storrs, an eloquent preacher of the Congregationalist denomination, is also 
well known as a writer and lecturer. 


Persons in whom Individuality, Size, Weight, and Locality 
are large, have generally a talent for engineering and those 
branches of mechanics which consist in the application of 
forces ; they delight in steam-engines, water-wheels, and 
turning-lathes. The same combination occurs in persons dis- 
tinguished for successful execution of difficult feats in skating;,. 
in which the regulation of equi- 
librium is an important element. 

3. Illustrative Examples. — 
Mr. Simpson published in the 
Edinburgh Phrenological Jour- 
nal (vol. ii. p. 412) an interesting 
and ingenious essay on this organ, 
in which he enumerates a great 
number of examples in proof of 
its functions. It is large, says he, 
in Dr. Chalmers, Dr. Brewster, 
Sir James Hall, Sir George Mac- 
kenzie, Professor Leslie, and in 
Mr. Jardine and Mr. Stephenson, 
two very eminent engineers. 

Mr. Richard Edmonson, of 
Manchester, England, mentions that a great number of ob- 
servations have led him to the conviction that this organ 
gives the perception of perpendicularity. Workmen who 
easily detect deviations from the perpendicular possess it 
large ; while those who constantly find it necessary to resort 
to the plumb-line have it small, and vice versa. 

Brunei, the great engineer of the Thames Tunnel, and his 
son, builder of the Great Eastern (fig. 130), possessed a 
remarkable development of Weight, while the organ of Color 
was totally wanting. 

4. Cultivation. — Skating, practicing gymnastic feats, 
balancing a pole, riding on a horse, walking, climbing, sail- 
ing, gunnery, etc., exercise and develop Weight. 

5. Restraint. — If one be prone to attempt dangerous 
feats of climbing, walking on narrow places, etc., he should 
cultivate Cautiousness and Ii'll V- .:'.t in check. 

Fig. 130.— Brunei,. 





Though thou clothest thyself with crimson, and deckest thee with ornaments of 
gold, and rentest thy face with painting, in vain shalt thou make thyself fair. 

1. Location". — The place of the organ of Color (23, fig. 23) 
is the middle of the eyebrow, at the most elevated part of the 
superciliary ridge. 

2. Physiognomical Sign. — The form of the eyebrow is 


Fig. 131.— Isaac Westcott, D.D.* 

Fig. 132.— Charles HoDGE.t 

greatly modified by the development of this organ. The 
ordinary indication of its full development is the regular 
arching of the brow, as seen in fig. 131 ; but sometimes the 
brow is pushed forward and made very prominent at that 
point. When large, it also gives a peculiar appearance of. 
fullness to the upper eyelid. \ 

3. Function.— Its function is to distinguish all the shades 
of color, and the relations of harmony or of discord between 
them. When large, the faculty of Color gives great delight 
in contemplating colors and good taste in their use and com- 
bination in dress, painting, etc. Those in whom the organ is 
deficient, on the contrary, experience little interest in coloring, 

* Dr. Westcott is a Baptist minister of great piety and zeal, and a very effective 
preacher. He is pastor of the Bloomingdale Baptist Church, New York. 

t A prominent Presbyterian minister, editor of the Biblical Repertory, and an authoi 
of note in his denomination. 


and are almost insensible to difference of shades, hues, and 

4. Deficiency. — Certain persons are almost destitute of 
the power of distinguishing colors. Dr. Spurzheim mentions 
a family, all the individuals of which distinguish only black 
and white. Dr. Unzer, of Altona, could not perceive green 
and blue; and inability to distinguish between these colors is' 
very common. To many, also, green and red look the same. 
This defect is called color-blindness. 

5. Illustrative Examples. — The organ of Color is gener- 
ally more developed in woman than in man; hence it happens 
that the eyebrows of women are more finely arched ; and this 
explains why they are more frequently lovers of flowers and 
fond of a variety of colors in dress. Among great painters, 
this organ is seen to be very large in those most distinguished 
as colorists ; for instance, Corregio, Titian, Claude Lorraine, 
Rubens (fig. 125), Rembrandt, Poussin, and Raphael. 

6. Cultivation. — Observing and classifying or arranging 
colors, painting, cultivating flowers, etc., will exercise and aid 
in the development of this organ. 

7. Restraint. — To restrain is not necessary. 

XXXIII. ORDER.. (29.) 

Let all things be done decently and in order. 

1. Location. — The organ of Order is situated over the 
outer corner of the eye (29, fig. 23), between Color and 

2. Function. — The function of this organ is well indicated 
by its name. It gives method and order to physical objects, 
and is, perhaps, a co-worker with the reflective faculties in 
the conception of system, generalization, and classification. 

3. Illustrative Examples. — Dr. Spurzheim mentions that 
the Sauvage de l'Aveyron, at Paris, though an idiot, could 
not bear to see a chair or any object out of its place; and 
that as soon as anything was deranged, he, without being 
excited to it, directly replaced it. He likewise saw in Edin- 
burgh a girl who in many respects was idiotic, but in whom 



the love of order was very active. She avoided her brother's 
apartment in consequence of the confusion that prevailed in 
it. It is usually large in Quaker ladies, of whom Lucretia 
Mott is an example. 

4, Cultivation. — Any business that requires system and 

Pig. 133— Henbt C. Cabey.* 


Fig. 154.— James P. BECKwounTH.t 

orderly arrangement, as well as studies involving the contem- 
plation, a regular arrangement of objects will help to develop 

5. Restraint. — Where there is a morbid action of this 
organ, making the subject painfully susceptible to the in- 
fluence of disorder and lack of methodical . arrangement, an 
effort must be made to withdraw the mind from the contem- 
plation of such matters. It should be considered how im- 
possible it is to have everything exactly to one's mind in this 
respect, and that we only waste our time and mar our tempei 
in the attempt to reduce everything to the regular arrange- 
ment we love. Avoid becoming " more nice than wise."" 

xxxrv. calculation. (30.) 

The very hairs of your head are all numbered. 

\. Location. — The organ of Calculation is situated at the 

* A distinguished American author and political economist. 

t A iioted hunter, trapper, and guide of the Rocky Mouutains. He died in 1867. 


outer angle of the eye (30, fig. 23). When large, it swells 
the frontal bone at that particular spot. 

2. Physiognomical Sign. — In individuals endowed with 
great calculating powers, the external angle of the eyebrow 
is either much pressed down or much elevated, the contigura 

Fig. 135.— Dr. Hind.* 

Fig. 13C— Georse Combe. t 

tion in both cases resulting from the great development of 
the part of the brain situated behind the outer angle of the 
orbit, which forms a ridge, above or below which the eye- 
brow naturally slides. The portraits and busts of great cal- 
culators, like Xewton, Elder, Kaestner, Herschel, Buxton, 
Colborn, Safford, etc., all present either one or the other of 
these external signs. 

3. Function. — Whatever concerns unity and plurality 
belongs to this faculty; hence its end is calculation ir 
general. The recollection of the numbers of houses, or of 
pages where we have read passages, depends upon this 
faculty. It gives ability to reckon in the head, or facility ia 
mental arithmetic. 

4. Illustrative Examples. — Dr. Spurzheim mentions that 
" certain races of negroes make five the extent of their 
enumeration, that is, they count only as far as five by simple 

* An Eneli^h astronomer distiiisniBbe.'l for his ability a* a calculator. 
t Mr. Oomhe \v:;s *o deficient in this focnliy of Calculation that he was never ablt to, 
master the multiplication table, bee his lectures on Phrenology, 



terms ; all their numbers after five are compound, whereas 
ours are not so till they have passed the number ten ; while 
our terms, six, seven, etc., are simple, they say five-one, five- 
two, five-three, etc. Negroes in general," he continues, " do 
not excel in arithmetic and numbers ; and, accordingly, their 
heads are very narrow in the seat of the organ of Number." 

Among the most remarkable examples of the extraordinary, 
development of Calculation, Jedediah Buxton and George 
Bidder, of England, and Zerah Colburn and Truman II. 
Safford, of the United States, may here be mentioned. 

5. Cultivation.— The study of arithmetic and algebra, 
and the practice of calculation in its various forms, and 
especially mental computations, exercise and develop this 
faculty ; as also the habit of charging the mind with the 
memory of the numbers of houses in a street, the pages of a 
book, etc. 

6. Restraint.— -To restrain is not necessary. 


We arc journeying to the place of which the Lord said, I 'will give it you ; come 
frith us. 

1. Location. — The organ of Locality is situated in the 
forehead, on each side of Eventuality and over the inner cor- 
ner of the eyebrows (31, fig. 23), 

2. Physiognomical Sign. — A marked prominence above 
the inner corner of the eyebrows, on each side of the mesial 
line, as in Captain Cook (fig. 139), indicates large Locality. 

3. Function. — The faculty of Locality gives the ability to 
form conceptions of place and to find places, delight in 
scenery, memory of the location of objects, love of travel, etc. 

4. Illustrative Examples. — Locality is large in the busts 
and portraits of all eminent navigators and travelers, such as 
Columbus, Cook, Mungo Park, and Sir Samuel Baker; also 
in great astronomers and geographers, as Kepler, Galileo. 
Tycho Brahe, and Newton. In Tasso the poet, also, it 
appears to be very large, and he manifested the faculty in a 
high degree. 

In the mask of Sir Walter Seott the crgan is large. Readera 


similarly endowed are almost as much delighted with his 
descriptions of scenery as by a tour made by themselves amid 


ttG. 137.— O. B. Frothingham, D.D.* Fig. 138.— James F. Clarke, D.D."- 

th. mountain glens; while those in whom the organ is small, 
are quite uninterested by his most splendid poetical landscapes. 
This author wrote so pictorially, that he almost saves an 
artist, who means to illustrate his 
pages, the trouble of invention. 
The organ is more developed in 
men than in women, and the 
manifestations correspond. 

5. Cultivation. — Traveling, 
the study of geography, and a 
persevering exercise of the mem- 
D\ y in reference to places, roads, 
landmarks, the location of the 
•phrenological organs, etc., will 
promote the activity and devel- 

t. c 4.1 • , ~,.„„ , Fro- 13!>.— Captain Cook. 

opment ot tins organ. 

6. Restraint. — A too strong disposition to rove, or a rest~ 
less desire for a continual change of place, must be met by 

* Dr. Frothingham is a Unitarian minister of New York, and a writer of great 
ability on theological subjects. He is one of the leaders of the rationalistic party in 
the Unitarian denomination. 

t A preacher and writer of great talent, and minister of the Church of the Disciples 
(Unitarian) in Boston. lie is known as a reformer and a philanthropist. 



the cultivation of Continuity and Firmness, and a resolute 
determination to settle down and establish a permanent 

Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations. 


Fig. 140.— S. H. Ttng, D.D.* Fig. 141.— Samuel Osgood, D.D.t 

1. Location. — The organ of this faculty is situated in the 
center of the forehead (32, fig. 23), to which when large it 

gives a rounded fullness, as in fig. 
142. Fig. 143 shows it small. 
Taking the root of the nose as the 
starting-point, we first come to In- 
dividuality, which lies between the 
eyebrows. The next organ is Event- 
uality, just above the eyebrows. 

2. Function. — The function of 
Eventuality is to impart memory 
of facts, recollection of circum- 
stances, news, occurrences, and pass- 
ing events — whatever has been said, heard, seen, or in any 
way once known. It seems to perceive the impressions which 

* Stephen H. Tyng, D.D., is a prominent clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, and pastor of St. George's Church. New York. He is regarded by many as ore 
of the best extemporaneous pulpit orators in the city. 

t Rev. Dr. Osgood is pastor of the Church of the Messiah (Second Unitarian), New 
Vork, az^v is distinguished both as a writer and as a preacher. 

Fig. 142. 

Fig. 143. 


are the immediate functions of the external senses, to change 
these into notions, conceptions, or ideas, and to be essential to 
attention in general. Its sphere of activity is very great, and 
expressed by the verbs in their infinitive mood. It desires to 
know everything by experience, and consequently excites all 
the other organs to activity ; it would hear, see, smell, taste, 
and touch ; is fond of general instruction, and inclines to the 
pursuit of practical knowledge. 

3. Cultivation. — Reading history, mythology, the news- 
papers of the day, etc., always charging the memory with 
the eA'ents and occurrences related ; writing down or verbally 
relating the incidents of every-day life, and telling stories 
and anecdotes, will give exercise to the organ and promote 

4. Restraint. — To restrain is not necessary. 

XXXVII. TIME. (33.) 

To everything there is a season ; and a time to every purpose under the heaven. 


Fig. 144.— Ole Bornemank Bull.* Fig. 145.— T. B. Hayward.t 

1. Location. — The organ of this faculty is situated just 
above the middle of the eyebrow (33, fig. 23), and between 
Locality and Tune. 

* Ole Bull is well known the world over as a violinist of great ability. He is a 
Norwegian by birth. 

t Rev. T. B. Hayward is a minister of the New Church (Swedenborgian), and much 
respected and esteemed by all who know hiui. 

no now to read character. 

2. Function. — This organ imparts recollection and intuitive 
knowledge of the lapse of time ; memory of dates ; ability 
to keep time in music ; also to perceive those minuter divi- 
sions, and their harmonious relations, which constitute rhythm. 
Persons who have it large are invariably accurate dancers, 
and generally fond of the exercise. 

3. Illustrative Examples. — Individuals are occasionally 
met with who estimate the lapse of time so accurately that 
they are able to tell the hour without having recourse to a 
timepiece. An illiterate Highlander, who was long in the 
service of Sir G. S. Mackenzie as a plowman, could tell the 
hour of the day with great exactness, and also the time of 
high water, although he resided seven miles from the sea. 
Sir George had not become acquainted with Phrenology at 
the period of this man's death. The lower animals seems to 
be endowed with the power of jDerceiving and appreciating 
intervals of time. Mr. Southey, in his Omniana, relates two 
instances of dogs who had acquired such a knowledge of 
time as would enable them to count the days of the week. 
He says : " My grandfather had one which trudged two miles 
every Saturday to cater for himself in the shambles. I know 
another more extraordinary and well-authenticated example. 
A dog which had belonged to an Irishman, and was sold by 
him in England, would never touch a morsel of food upon 
Friday. This may or may not be true. We ourselves do 
not believe it. The same faculty of recollecting intervals of 
time exists, though in a more limited extent, in the horse. 

4. Cultivation. — Regular habits in respect to time, as in 
rising, retiring, taking meals, etc., and the practice of music, 
dancing, and rhythmic gymnastic exercises tend to promote 
the activity of this organ. 

5. Restraint. — To restrain is unnecessary. 


Praise the Lord with harp ; sing unto him with the psaltery and an instrument of 
ten strings. Sing unto him a new song. 

1. Location. — The organ of Tune is situated on the side 
of the forehead just above the outer corner of the eyebrow 


and next to Time (34, fig. 23). A great development of the 
organ enlarges the lateral parts of the forehead ; but it? 
appearance varies according to the direction and form of the 
convolutions. Dr. Spurzheim observes, that, in Gliick and 
others, this organ had a pyramidal form ; in Mozart, Viotti,-, 
Zumsteg, Dussek, Crescentini, and others, the external and 


Fig. 146.— Mlle. De Katow.* 

Fig. 147.— William Collier, T>.T>.t 

lateral portions of the forehead are enlarged, but rounded. 
Great practice is necessary to be able to observe this organ 
successfully ; and beginners should place together one person 
possessing a genius for music, and another who can scarcely 
distinguish between any two notes, and mark the difference 
of their heads. The superior development of the former 
will be perceptible at a glance. 

The heads of Italians and Germans, in general, are broader 
and fuller at the situation of this organ than those of Span- 
iards, Frenchmen, and Englishmen in general ; and musical 
talent is more common in the former than in the latter. 

2. Function. — The faculty of Tune gives a perception of 
melody, the harmony of sounds, and the ability to learn and 
remember tunes ; other faculties are required to compose. 
Tune is only one ingredient in a genius for music. Time is 

* A celebrated Russian violinist. See how full in the temples 1 
t A minister of the Methodist Protestant Church and a leader in the denomination, 
lie is noted for zeal and earnestness. 


requisite to give a just perception of intervals; Ideality, to 
communicate elevation and refinement; and Secretiveness 
and Imitation, to produce expression; while Constructiveness, 
Form, Weight, and Individuality are necessary to supply 
mechanical expertness — qualities all indispensable to a suc- 
cessful composer or performer. 

3. Cultivation. — Ringing and the practice of vocal and 
instrumental music, attending concerts, and the constant 
effort to appreciate music will lead to an increased activity 
and consequent development of the organ of Tune. 

4. Restraint. — Restraint is seldom called for, but should 
there be an excessive fondness for music, intei'fering with 
other studies or pursuits, or with the common duties of life, 
one must resolutely hold it in check by the exercise of the 
restraining organs, such as Conscientiousness, Firmness, and 
the reflective intellect. 

Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile. 

1. Location. — The organ of Language is situated on the 
back part of the orbitary plates, the bones which form the 
roof of the eyes and support the anterior lobes of the brain. 

2. Physiognomical Sign. — A large development of Lan- 
guage is indicated by prominent eyes. Sometimes the eyes 
not only project, but are also depressed, when the under 
eyelid presents a sort of sack or roll or appears swollen. 

'Both of these signs are conspicuous in fig. 148. 

3. Function. — This faculty gives verbal memory and 
capacity for learning arbitrary signs of all kinds ; and persons 
who have it large readily remember words, and learn by 
heart with great facility. When Language is very large and 
the general intellect only moderate, it is surprising what a 
volume of words can be poured forth to express a few ideas, 
and sometimes no idea at all. This class of persons have 
great pleasure in hearing themselves talk, and are rendered 
uncomfortable if not allowed to indulge in their favorite 
occupation. If they write, their style is like their speaking, 


destitute of condensation — they scribble whole pages about 

4. Illustrative Examples. — This, like all other organs, 
seems composed of different parts. Some persons are apt to 
forget proper names, while they recollect words denoting the 
qualities of external objects. Disease or accident has entailed 


Fig. 148.— Wji. R. Williams.* 

Fig. 149.— Robert Tuknbull, D.D.t 

this peculiarity in several instances. " One Lereard, of Mar- 
seilles," mentioned by Dr. Spurzheim, "having received a 
blow from a foil on the eyebrow, lost the memory of proper 
names entirely ; he sometimes forgot the names of his intimate 
friends, and even of his father, as he stated in a letter written 
to Dr. Gall for advice." It is large in Charles Dickens, and 
small in General U. S. Grant. 

AVe frequently meet with men of great talent only moder- 
ately endowed with Language, and others whose mental 
] towers are very common-place who have this organ large. 
Many persons who are largely endowed with this faculty, 
and who have an excellent verbal memory, and learn by heart 
with great readiness, yet make little progress in learning the 
science of a language. 

* J)r. Williams is pastor of the Fifty-fourth Street Baptist Church, New York, and is 
distinguished for his eloquence, learning:, talent, authorship, and piety. 

+ A Scotchman by birth, and now pastor of the largest Baptist chiirch in Hartford, 
Coun. He is also an author of merit. 



5. Cultivation. — The constant practice of talking and 
writing, the study of languages, and the committing to 
memory of any arbitrary signs, are all adapted to promote 
the development of this faculty. 

6. Restraint. — Where Language is very large and active, 
it sometimes leads to verbosity, garrulity, and circumlocution, 
in which case there must be a systematic effort to check this 
tendency by a severe lopping off of redundancies in writing 
and a constant watchfulness over one's self in speaking. 

And Paul reasoned with them out of the Scriptures. [The why and wherefore Faculty .J 


Fig. 150.— W. F. Morgan, D.D.* 

Fig. 151.— W. B. Hayden.t 

1. Location. — Causality is situated in the upper part of 
the forehead (36, fig. 23), on each side of Comparison, which 
occupies the center. The two together, when both are large, 
give great fullness to that portion of the forehead, as seen in 
fig. 20. 

2. Function. — The faculty of Causality gives the percep- 
tion of the relation between cause and effect, " the why and 
wherefore." Comparison seizes the general relations between 

* William F. Morgan, D.D., is rector of St. Thomas 1 Church (Episcopalian) in New 
York, and is greatly respected and esteemed by all who know him. 

t Rev. W. B. Hayden is a preacher of note in the Swedenborgian denomination, and. 
the author of several works on subjects connected with New Church doctrines, 


objects, but Causality ascends beyond juxtaposition and rela- 
tions; it penetrates the manner in which effects and their 
causes are connected together, seizes the action of one body 
on another, and traces the result of that action. It impresses 
us with an irresistible conviction, that every phenomenon or 
ehange in nature is caused by something, and hence, by suc- 
cessive steps, leads us to the great Cause of all. It is also 
creative, producing originality and forethought, and ability 
to adapt means to ends. 

3. Illustrative Examples. — Dr. Gall speaks of a cast 
molded on the head of Kant, the great metaphysical philos- 
opher, after his death, in which he found an extraordinary 
prominence in the region assigned to Causality. (See fig. 20.) 
Afterward he became acquainted with Fichte, in whose head 
he found the region still more largely developed than in Kant. 

As examples of large Causality, we may mention Plato, 
Socrates, Bacon, Montaigne, Galileo, Descartes, Leibnitz, 
Sir Isaac Newton, Franklin, Cuvier, Gall, Napoleon, Dupuy tren, 
Fourier, Brunei, and Webster. 

4. Cultivation. — The study of philosophy in all its 
branches, and especially Phrenology in its theoretical aspects ; 
planning ; contriving ways and means ; meditating on the 
laws of nature ; and trying to trace out the connection 
between observed phenomena and* their causes, all serve to 
exercise Causality and increase its power. 

5. Restraint. — To restrain this faculty is seldom necessary. 
If too active, divert the mind by strict attention to practical 
affairs, cultivating the Perceptives. 


The invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being 
understood by the things that are made. 

1. Location. — The organ of Comparison is situated in the 
upper part of the forehead on the middle line between the 
two sides, and generally just below the roots of the hair, the 
bottom being about the center of the forehead (37, fig. 23).- 
It is prominent in the portrait of Linnreus, whose pursuits 
necessitated the constant exercise of the faculty. 



2. Function. — Comparison gives ability to perceive differ- 
ences and resemblances ; to reason inductively ; to analyze, 

Fig. 152.— M. J. Spalding, D.D.* 

Fig. 153.— John McCloskey, D.D.t 

classify, compare, and draw inferences ; and to judge correctly 
of the congruousness of objects or ideas. It seems also to 

exert a harmonizing influence 
over the action of all the other 

3. Illustrative Examples. 
— Among nations, it is very 
large in the French and in the 
Irish. Thomas Moore may be 
instanced as one of the best 
examples of its manifestation 
in literary composition. " The 
harp that once through Tara's 
halls," illustrates his use of 
Comparison as a figure of 
speech. Another short j)oern — " Though fate, my girl, may 
bid us part" — is almost entirely made up of a description and 


* Dr. Spalding is Archbishop of Baltimore and Primate of the Roman Catholic 
Church in the United States. His " History of the Reformation" is one of the standard 
works of his church. 

t Dr. McCloskey, second Archbishop of New York, is considered one of the most 
polished pulpit orators in the Catholic Church, and he is noted for his kindness of 
heart and active benevolence, 


comparison of conditions. The following often-quoted lines 
are likewise in point : 

" When I remember all 

The friends so linked together, 
I've seen around me fall, 

Like leaves in wintry weather ; 
I feel like one who treads alone 

Some banquet hall deserted, 
Whose lights are tied, whose garlands dead, 

And all but he departed." 

Comparison was large in the heads of Curran, Burke, Pitt, 
Chalmers, Franklin, Roscoe, Hume, Jeffrey, Patrick Henry, 
Clay, John Quincy Adams, and Webster. 

The teachings of the Bible are addressed to this faculty in 
an eminent degree, being replete with analogies and com- 
parisons ; as " Unto what is the kingdom of God like, and 
whereunto shall I resemble it ? It is like a grain of mustard 
seed," etc. " It is like leaven," etc. 

4. Cultivation. — Studying logic, mental philosophy (phre- 
nologically, of course), chemistry, botany, etc., or the con- 
stant exercise of one's analytical powers in any branch of 
study or business, may be made subservient to the develop- 
ment of this faculty. 

5. Restraint. — To restrain is not necessary. 


Behold, I know your thoughts, and the devices which ye wrongfully imagine 
•gainst me. 

1. Location. — The organ of Human Nature is situated on 
the median line of the forehead, between Comparison and 
Benevolence (C, fig. 23). 

2. Function. — The function of this organ is to furnish us 
with an intuitive knowledge of character, or to enable us to 
perceive the state of mind or feeling possessed by others, so 
that we may successfully adapt ourselves to them and operate 
upon their feelings. It gives sagacity, and is possessed in a 
very remarkable degree by our North American Indians. It- 
was large in Nnpoleon and in old Haves, the great rogue- 
catcher and detective of New York, as it is also in Gen. Grant. 



3. Cultivation. — No better means can he made use of to 
improve this faculty than to make human nature a study, 
using Phrenology and Physiognomy as guides in its prosecu- 
tion. Observe every one you meet, and note the expression, 


Fig. 155.— Tueo. L. Cutler.* 

Fig. 156.— Jos. T. Duryea.t 

tones, and actions of each, and try to read them as you might 
an open book. 

4. Restraint. — If too suspicious, by reason of over-large 
Cautiousness and large or perverted Human Nature, one must 
cultivate Benevolence, Hope, and Conscientiousness, and try 
to take a kinder, more lenient, cheerful, and juster view of his 


A soft answer turneth away wrath, but grievous words stir up anger. 

1. Location. — The organ of Agreeableness is situated in 
the upper edge of the forehead (D, fig. 23). It lies directly 
over the inner angle of the eye and about two inches above 
the ridge of the eyebrow. It is apt to be marked by a 
depression in the American head; but is prominent in the 
French, who are said to be the most polite. 

* Rev. Theodore L. Cuyler is pastor of the Lafayette Avenue Presbyterian Church in 
Brooklyn. He is one of the most popular preachers in the United States. 

t Rev. Joseph T. Duryea, lately one of the pastors of the Collegiate Reformed Church 
in New York, now of Brodklyn, is a young man of brilliant powers and of great promiBe. 


2. Function. — It imparts the ability to make one's self 
acceptable to others, and to adopt a persuasive and con- 
ciliatory mode of address and pleasant manners. One who 
has it large can utter even the most unwelcome truths with- 
out giving offense; and with large Imitation and Benevolence, 


Fig. 157.— Schuyler Colfax.* 

Fig. 158.— Frank P. Blair, JR.t 

to which it is closely allied in location, is sure to be a genera 1 
favorite, especially if the social organs be large. 

3. Cultivation. — The study and constant practice of the 
art. of politeness, which has its foundation in this organ in 
conjunction with Benevolence and Conscientiousness, will 
tend to arouse the spirit of Agreeableness. By acting in 
such a way as to make ourselves, so far as possible, agreeable 
to those around us, we shall in time come to feel agreeable, 
and shall develop the organ of that feeling. [See our hand- 
book, "How to Behave,"J for lessons in politeness, and the 
study of a courteous deportment.] 

4. Restraint. — To restrain is not necessary. 

* An American politician and statesman of fine ability and strong personal inf uence. 

t A general in the Union Army during the American Civil War; not noted for 
suavity of manners. 

t " How to Behave," A Pocket Manual of Republican Etiquette and Guide to Correct 
Personal Habits, with Rules for Debating Societies and Deliberative Assemblies. 
Price, 75 cents ; or. in connection with "How to Write, IIow to Talk, and How to Do 
Business," complete in one Tolume, £2 25, 





MX character reading, as in 
everything else, it is im- 
portant that we begin in 
the right place — at the begin- 
ning — and that, having begun 
rightly, we proceed step by 
step according to the natural 
sequence of the points to be 
considered. " Order is heaven's 
first law," and by means of 
method we make simple and 
f easy what at first sight seema 
complicated and difficult. 

1. Size. — Size, you will re- 
member, other things being 
equal, is the measure of power. Having the living subject 
before you, commence by considering his or her size — the size 
of the person as a whole. How does it compare with the 
average development of the race, nation, and sex to which, 
the subject belongs. Having settled this point in your mind, 
you have the first element of the combination which is to 
determine your estimate of character. 

2. Quality. — Having determined the size, your next in- 
quiry should be, "What is the Quality?" Quality is mainly 
a matter of temperament. What, then, is the temperament 
of the subject ? We have described the Temperaments, and 
shall take it for granted that you know how to distinguish 
them; but, to make the matter still plainer, if possible, we 
will restate and illustrate in a somewhat different form, look- 

Fig. 159. — Andrew Jackson. 


Fig. 160.— The English Girl. 

ing at the subject in its physiognomical as well as its physio- 
logical and phrenological aspects. 

Each temperament has a configuration peculiar to itself; so 

that the general outlines of the 
person, or of any part of it, will 
indicate to which the subject 
belongs. Take the head (in- 
cluding the face) as an example. 
Observe its configuration as seen 
in front and in profile. 

3. The Vital Temperament. 
— We Avill suppose, for instance, 
that the subject before you has a 
face and head which, in the front 
view, present a nearly circular 
outline, like fig. 160. The profile 
will show the same tendency to 
roundness as in fig. 161 ; and 
this will be the character of the whole physical system — the 
body and limbs being plump and full, and the whole figure 
broad and stout rather than long and slender. 

Now, you may at once conclude that your subject has a 
predominance of the Vital Temperament, and 
this fact will furnish the key to his or her 

There will be great vigor, a good digestion, 
love of fresh air and exercise, and a fondness 
for good living and physical enjoyments gener- 
ally, with a disinclination to hard and pro- 
tracted labor. 

Mentally, you may look for ardor, impulsive- 
ness, enthusiasm, and versatilit^if not fickle- 
ness. There will be more diligence than per- 
sistence, and more brilliancy than depth. There 
may be a quick and violent temper, but it will 
be easily calmed, and in general the disposition will be cheer- 
ful, amiable, and genial. 

4. The Motive Temperament. — Perhaps your next sul> 

Fie. i»;i. — rRoriLK, 



ject will have a face like figs. 159 and 162, in which length 
is the predominant characteristic. The profile will present 
strong angular lines, as in fig. 163, in place of the carves 
*"hich prevail in the previous illustration. The figure will bo 

Fig. 162.— Hon. Mr. Julian, M.C. 

Fig. 163.— Profile. 

found to be tall and striking, with a manifest tendency to 
angularity, as in the features. 

In this case you have the Motive Temperament befoi*e you, 
and may infer density and firmness of texture in all the 
organs, and great strength and endurance in the physical 
system, with energy, capacity for work, and a strongly 
marked character, in which executiveness, love of power, 
stability, persistence, and directness are noticeable traits. 
There may be, though not necessarily, an objectionable 
degree of hardness and coarseness ; but we shall generally 
find a degree of firmness and constancy which may be relied 
on in business, in friendship, or in love. This temperament 
and form of face are less common among women than anion sr 
men, and the characteristics we have named are of course 
subject to the modifications superinduced by sex and age. 

5. The Mental Temperament. — A third form of face h 
shown in fig. 104. It may be called the pyriform or pear- 
shaped face, of which the profile is less rounded than in fig. 
161, less angular than in fig. 163, and more delicate than 


either, as in fig. 165. As it is the expansion of the superior 
parts of the face, including the forehead, which gives the pyri- 
form shape to the whole in the front view, you may without 
looking farther set down your subject who presents this form 
as having a predominance of the Mental Temperament. You 

Fig. 164.— Rachel. Fig. 165.— Profile. 

will find the figure in this case slender and delicate rather 
than elegant or striking. The indications are great mental 
activity, a lively imagination, fine- sensibilities, refinement, 
delicacy, taste, and literary or artistic talent. 

Of course these forms and the temperaments they indicate 
occur in all degrees of development and in combinations 
innumerable, and are modified by the state of the health and 
other conditions already noted. You will learn in time to 
attribute to each its proper strength and influence. See what 
is said on Balance of Temperaments (Chap. II., Sec. II.), also 
High and Low Quality (Chap. II., Sec, III ). 

In connection with Temperament, Breathing Power, Circu- 
lation, Digestion, Activity, Excitability, and General Health, 
must be noted by means of the indications we have given in 
Chap. II. 

Having proceeded thus far, you have a good general idea 
of the capacity and tendencies of the person before you — the 
outlines, as it were, of the character. 



You should next seek to estimate the power of the brain, 
as a, whole. You have already taken into account the element 
of size in the person, as a whole, and have 
considered the brain in its influence upon 
temperament. Get now its absolute size 
by measurement,* and then proceed to 
ascertain the relative development of its 
different parts or regions. Which pre- 
dominates? the Region of Propensity, the 
Region of Intellect, or the Spiritual Region ? 
If Intellect be the leading development, 
Fig. lee— Three the forehead and whole anterior compart- 
ment of the cranium, as marked on the 
diagram (fig. 16c), will be deep and broad, as in fig. 167. 
Here the posterior compartment or Region of Propensity is 
short and narrow, and the Superior or Spiritual Region (seat 
of the Moral Sentiments) only moderately developed. If 
your subject have a forehead like this, you will infer that he 
is both an observer and a thinker of more than ordinary 

If the lower part of the forehead predominate, as in fig. 169, 
perception will be found in the ascendant; and if the upper 
portion be largest, as in fig. 168, there will be more thought- 
fulness or reflection and less observation — more philosophy 
and less science — more of the theoretical than of the practical. 
The predominance of the propensities gives breadth to the 
base of the brain betwesn and behind the ears, as in fig. 1*70, 
and length to the posterior lobe, as in fig. 1*71. From the 
lateral development you will infer appetite, energy, economy, 

* In measuring the head as here suggested, pass the tape around it horizontally 
about an inch above the eyebrows, or so that it will pass over the organs of Individu- 
ality aud Parental Love. This will give some idea of the size of the head ; but the fact 
that some heads are round, others long, some low, and others high, so modifies these 
measurements that they do not convey any very correct notion of the actual quantity 
ef brain. These measurements range somewhat as follows in adults: 

T or Very Large, 24 inches and upward ; 6 or Large, rrom 23 to 23J ; 5 or Full 
from 22 to 22J ; 4 or Average, from '21 to 21J ; 3 or Moderate, from 20 to 201 ; 2 or 
Small, from 19 to lt)j ; l Below, 19. Female beads are half an Inch to an Inch below 
these measurements, corresponding with their bodiue. . 



policy — a disposition to preserve, provide for, and defend 
one's self. The extent backward from the ear indicates the 
power of the social element, 
and gives the fraternal, af- 
fectionate, loving, domestic, 
and patriotic disposition 
t Development obliquely 
upward from the ear, or 
in the superior part of the 
posterior region, giving 
height and breadth to that ; 
portion of the head (of ^ 
which also nV 171 affords Hn 

• \ • US 

an illustration), imparts 1^ 
prudence, aspiration, dig- 
nity, pride, self-reliance, 

and love of distinction, FlG - 167.— Wilkie Collins.* 

power, and position. If the coronal region, or top-head, pre* 



^\ WW / 

Fig. 168.— Hepworth Dixon.t Fig. 1G9.— A Lowlandeb. 

dominate, as in fig. 172, in which it will be seen that the 

* An English novelist and miscellaneous writer, noted for his skill in the manage* 
ment of the plot in his fictions. " After Dark," " The Dead Secret," and " The Woman 
fci White" are among his mo*t popular works. 

t An English journalist and author, best known here through bib "New Ameri' 1 *." 



height from the opening of the ear to the apex of the head is 
very great, yon may assume that the subject has a strong 


Fig. 170.— General Joseph Hooker.* Fig. 171. — Theodosia Burr Allston.t 

natural tendency toward a moral and religious life — to mani- 
fest faith, hope, and charity — to reverence God and his laws, 
and to aspire after purity and holiness. 

spiritually minded. Having ascertained which of the 

groups of organs, as a whole, pre- 
dominate, your next step should be to 
determine the controlling organ in 
that group. " If it be Conscientious- 
ness in the moral group, and that is 
the controlling group of the brain, then 
everything must be squared according 
to the rule of rectitude. If Benevo- 
lence is the controlling organ in that 
group, then everything must be gov- 
erned according to the spirit of kind- 
ness and sympathy. If Veneration be 
the strongest, then there is a tendency 
to think of God and to reverence his authority; if Conscien- 
tiousness lead the person to be honest, it is for God's sake ; 

* Known in the Union Army, in the American Civil War, as " fighting Joe Hooker." 
t Daughter of Aaron Bnrr. 

X Rev Benjamin Szolcl is a Jewish Rabbi of Baltimore, but by birth a Hungarian, 
and is distinguished for piety and learning. 

Fig. 172.— Benj. Szold4 


if through Benevolence he become a benefactor, it is for God's 
sake ; his Spirituality begets a yearning for the life to come, 
because God is the light thereof; Hope fixes its aspiration upon 
the Father of all, and thus he inclines to walk with God and 
have his conversation in heaven. This, at least, will be the 
form of his piety and the tendency of his moral life. 

"In the selfish group, with Acquisitiveness predominating, 
energy, skill, and executive force Avill back up that element, 
and money-making, though it may be honestly done, will 
seem to be the great drift of the person's life." 

As the predominant group determines the general tend- 
encies of the mind, so the strongest organ in that group 
influences the action of all the rest. In this way, if the faculty 
which inspires ambition be strong, the talent, skill, energy, 
enterprise, prudence, policy, friendship, affection, all incline 
toward and sustain ambition. 

A perfectly balanced brain will seldom, if ever, be found ; 
but supposing one to be in equilibrium, then the course of 
action which a person thus endowed would pursue, would 
be determined by the paramount external influence. Being 
equally fitted for business, law, medicine, mechanism, teach- 
ing, literature, and art, he would become what circumstances 
should render most desirable at the time. You will meet 
with approximations to this perfect balance of the elements 
of character, and the individuals in whom it occurs will be 
capable of succeeding in almost any branch of human effort. 

Having thus completed }'our general observations, you will 
be prepared to examine the individual organs for the purpose 
of ascertaining the size of each, observing at the same time 
the corresponding physiognomical sign, where such a sign 
has been ascertained to exist ; but in comparing the one with 
the other, it should be understood that while the brain (sub- 
ject always to the conditions we have noted) measures the 
absolute power of the mind, the face is rather an index of its 
habitual activity, and that the two sets of indications, taken 
either collectively or individually, are not necessarily equal; 
in other words, there may be latent power — mental capacity 
not manifested in the character or shown in the face. 


If, therefore, the sign of a faculty be large in the face, and 
its phrenological organ at the same time be moderate or 
small, there will be more activity than endurance or continu- 
ance in its characteristic manifestation; while, on the other 
hand, if the phrenological sign show more development than 
the physiognomical, there will be more endurance than activity. 
In the first case there will be a higher degree of manifesta- 
tion than the brain, considered by itself, would warrant us in 
counting upon. In the second there would be less, a certain 
amount of power continually remaining latent ; and this prin- 
ciple accounts for a large share of the misconception which 
exists in regard to both Phrenology and Physiognomy.* 

In seeking to determine the size of the organs, you must 
not be guided merely by the undulations on the surface or 
the head. Phrenology is not " bumpology." You must not 
look for hills, hollows, and protuberances (though you will 
sometimes find them), but judge the length of brain fibers 
from the medulla oblongata — the center of the brainf — to the 
surface, where the organs are located in a manner analogous 
to the estimation of the size of a wagon wheel by the length 
of its spokes. 

"We have pointed out the location of all the organs in 
Chap. IV., and the student who has studied that chapter 
carefully in connection with the symbolical head and the 
phrenological bust, which every one should possess, will, after 
the necessary practice, experience little difficulty in finding 
them. Some further directions in regard to a few important 
points, however, may be useful. 


The locations of the perceptive organs and most of the 
others lying at the base of the brain are readily determined, 
by means of our diagrams (figs. 22 and 23) and descriptions; 
the eyes, the eyebrows, the ears, or the occipital protuberance, 

* See "New Physiognomy; or, Signs of Character as manifested through Tempera- 
ment and External Forms, and especially in the Human Face Divine." With mora 
than a thousand engravings. By S. R. Wells, New York. 

* See Description of the Skull and the Bialu in. our Introduction, 


as the case may be, furnishing a convenient point of departure 
from which each may ho reached with little chance for error. 
The exact situations of those lying farther from these fixed 
points are less easily determined by the beginner. 

Drawing a line perpendicularly upward from the opening 
of the ear, you first cross Destructiveness, which lies above 
and partly behind the ear. When large, there will be great 
width of brain between the ears, and a swelling out of the 
organ, just over the orifice of the ear, say the size of one half 
of a common peach pit ; when small, the head will be narrow 
between the ears, with no protuberance at the point desig- 
nated. Next above this, and three quarters of an inch from 
the top of the ear, you come upon the fore part of Secretive- 
ness. Extending this line upward, you pass over Sublimity 
and Conscientiousness, and at the top of the head strike the 
fore part of Firmness, which, when large, gives a fullness to 
the crown. Taking this as another fixed point, you can 
readily determine the location of the other organs, on the 
median line, and each side of it. Between Self-Esteem and 
Inhabitiveness, on this central line, is Concentrativeness, 
which, being generally small in American heads, is usually 
Miarked by a depression at that point, and is thus easy to 

To find Cautiousness, another important point to fix cor- 
rectly in the mind, draw a line perpendicularly upward from 
the back part of the ear, and just where the head begins to 
round off to form the top, you will come upon that organ. 
It is generally w r ell developed in the heads of our countrymen, 
and often causes quite a prominence at that point. Forward 
of Cautiousness, and in a line with it, are Sublimity, Ideality, 
and Mirthfulness. 

Between Firmness and Benevolence is Veneration, in the 
center of the top-head. When this middle part rounds out 
and rises above the parts next before and behind it, Venera- 
tion is larger than Firmness and Benevolence. Below Vene- 
ration are the two organs of Hope and Spirituality, the latter 
of which is unfortunately marked by a depression in many 
Protestant heads. 


Above Alimentiveness, and the fore part of Destructiveness, 
is Acquisitiveness, and forward of that, Constructiveness. 

A horizontal line drawn backward from the outer angle of 
the eye strikes at the center of the back-head the upper part 
of the organ of Parental Love. An inch or a little less below 
this point is the occipital protuberance, which denotes by its 
\degree of development the power of endurance, and activity 
of the muscular system. It is large in great walkers — pedes- 
trians, and in foxhounds, horses, etc. On each side of this, 
and just below, is the organ of Amativeness, giving thickness 
to the neck below and between the ears. 

With these points fixed in the mind, the student will be 
enabled to carry out for himself the plan we have indicated 
for finding the organs ; but he must bear in mind the fact, that 
there are slight modifications in the position of the organs on 
each head ; and he must therefore learn to distinguish the 
form of each and its appearance when developed in different 
proportions to the others. 

We have referred to our diagrams, symbolical head, and 
bust, but these can only show the situation of the organs on 
some particular head, taken as a model, and it is impossible 
by means of them to convey more information than Ave have 
thus conveyed. The different appearances in all the varieties 
of relative size must be discovered by inspecting numbers 
of heads and comparing one with another.* 

When one organ is very largely developed, it encroaches 
on the space usually occupied by the neighboring organs, the 
situations of which are thereby slightly altered. When this 
occurs, it may be distinguished by the greatest prominence 
being near the center of the large organ, and the swelling 

* The student is often at first unable to perceive differences which, after a few 
months, become palpably manifest to him, and at the former obscurity of which he is 
not a little surprised. The following anecdote, related by Dr. Gall, is in point : The 
physician of the House of Correction at Grsetz, in Styria, sent him a box filled with 
skulls. In unpacking them, he was so much struck with the. extreme breadth of one 
of them at the anterior region of the temples, that he exclaimed, " Mon Dieu, quel 
crane de voleur 1"— My God, what a thievish skull ! Yet the physician had been 
unable to discover the organ of Acquisitiveness in that skull. His letter to Dr. Gall, 

Bent with the box, was found to contain this information : " Tke skull marked ia 

that of N , aa incorrigible thief." 


extending over a portion only of the other. In these cases 
the sliajie should he attended to; for the form of the organ is 
then easily recognized, and is a sure indication of the par- 
ticular one which is largely developed. The observer should 
learn, by inspecting a skull, to distinguish the mastoid process 
behind the ear, as also bony excrescences sometimes formed by 
the sutures, and several bony prominences which occur in every 
head, from elevations produced by development of brain. 

In regard to the employment of the scale (or any scale) for 
the numbering of the organs, it may be remarked that each 
examiner attaches to the terms Small, Moderate, Full, etc., 
shades of meaning perfectly known only to himself, and it is 
not reasonable to expect that the markings or statements of 
development made by different phrenologists will always 
perfectly agree. It must be borne in mind, too, that the 
numbers indicate merely the relative proportions of the 
organs to each other, on the same head, and not absolute 
size in relation to some fixed standard.* Besides, the shape 
of one's head — like his features — is constantly changing. If 
one improves by study or the practice of an art, or if, from 
inaction, one deteriorates, it will soon tell on both brain 
and character, altering the shape "of the head.f 

* It is one object to prove Phrenology to be true, and another to teach a beginner 
how to observe organs. For the first purpose, we do not in- general compare an organ 
in one head with the same organ in another ; because it is the predominance of par- 
ticular organs in the same head that gives ascendency to particular faculties in the 
individuals ; and, therefore, improving Phrenology, we usually compare the different 
organs of the same head. But in learning to observe, it is useful to contrast the same 
organ in different heads, in order to become familiar with its appearance in different 
sizes and combinations. With this view, it is proper to begin with the larger organs ; 
and two persons of opposite dispositions in the particular points to be compared, 
ought to be placed in juxtaposition, and their heads observed. Thus, if we take the 
organ of Cautiousness, we should examine its development in those whom we know 
to be remarkable for timidity, doubt, andjiesitation ; and we should contrast its 
appearance with that which it presents iu individuals remarkable for precipitancy, 
and into whose minds doubt or fear rarely enters : or a person who is passionately 
fond of children may be compared, in regard to the organ of Philoprogenitiveness, 
with another who regards them as an intolerable annoyance. — Combe. • 

t If the student desire to find the truth, he will consider first the general principles, 
developed in the present work, and the presumptions for and against them, arising 
from admitted facts in mental philosophy and physiology. He will next proceed to 
make observations in nature, in the forms, situations, appearances, and functions of 
the organs. 



PKaCTICAL application. 

I. cm BONO? 

[F self-knowledge be, as wise men in all ages have con- 
sidered it, the most important and useful of all learning, 
then Phrenology, which furnishes the key to this 
knowledge, is the most important and useful of all sciences. 
It enables us to measure our own capacity, to ascertain our 
strong and our weak points, to learn what sins most easily 
beset us, and what course to pursue to guard against them 
and promote virtue, purity, and holiness — how to cultivate 
the faculties which are deficient or inactive, and how to 
restrain or control excessive or perverted action. Knowing 
ourselves aright, we can set about the work of self-improve- 
ment understandingly and with the best prospects of full 

Next to a knowledge of ourselves is that of our fellow-men, 
and especially of those with whom we live in close relations 
of love, friendship, or business, and with whom we are brought 
into daily and hourly contact. Much of our happiness and 
of our success in life depends upon the character of our inter- 
course with them. To make that intercourse pleasant and 
profitable we must understand their characters. Phrenology 
enables us to do this, and thus makes us masters of the situation. 


The proper destiny of every well-organized man and woman 
is to love and marry, and it is in marriage, where the con- 
ditions are such as the laws of nature, written on our organ- 
ization, demand, that the highest degree of usefulness and 
happiness is attainable. But men and women too often love 
" not wisely but too well," and marriage, if love lead to that, 
proves a terrible, irremediable mistake. Why is this ? Because 


they neither know themselves or the persons of the other sex 
to whom they blindly give their hearts. Cupid is blind. Love 
between the sexes is a feeling, an impulse, a propensity. In its 
proper sphere it is, like all other faculties, good and conducive 
to human happiness and welfare; but it needs the guidance of 
intellect and the elevating and sanctifying influences of the 
moral sentiments. Phrenology, j udiciously applied, enables the 
young man to judge whether the charmer who has attracted his 
attention and won his admiration by some grace of person or 
of mind, is fitted by organization to make him happy ; and 
the young woman has in it a friendly counselor in her " affairs 
of the heart." Knowing her own physical and mental con- 
stitution, she will be able to determine to whom she may 
safely give her affections and her hand. He or she, then, who 
would love both wisely and well, should allow reason, in- 
structed by science, to be his o" u er o-uide. 


The parent and the teacher will find Phrenology an invalu- 
able guide in the training of the young. What folly can be 
greater than that of applying the same sort of discipline and 
mode of culture to all children ^like ; yet the teacher or the 
parent who knows nothing of Phrenology is almost sure to 
fall into this error. On the other hand, those who have taken 
Phrenology as a guide, adapt their teachings to the peculiar 
mental organization of each pupil, and in governing him are 
not at a loss to what faculties to appeal when he needs to be 
restrained or brought back from any wrong course. They do 
not strive to suppress any faculty, knowing that all are God- 
given and bestowed for a good purpose ; but they aim to 
educate and discipline them, bringing, if possible, the lower 
into due subordination to the higher. No one is well fitted 
to become a teacher or a parent who does not understand the 
science of the mind and the art of character reading. 


In choosing a pursuit, our science is of the utmost value; 
niome persons are fitted for one thing and some for another. 


A few are found who can do almost anything — are nearly as 
well fitted for one branch of business as another. Phrenology 
enables us to decide what pursuit to choose for a child. We 
consult his organization and find out what his natural 
tendencies, tastes, and capacities are, and instead of making 
a poor preacher an indifferent lawyer, or a blundering doctor 
of a youth whom nature intended for a first-rate mechanic, 
engineer, or business man, we allow the boy's own natural 
predilections to be our guide in choosing a calling for him. 


The clergyman finds his usefulness greatly enhanced by a 
knowledge of Phrenology, as it enables him to understand 
the mental peculiarities of his parishioners, and to adapt his 
teachings and admonitions to individual cases, so that his 
appeals are imderstood and felt. To the physician it proves 
not less useful as a guide in the treatment of his various 
patients, no two of whom are organized exactly alike. In all 
cases he finds that the mind affects the body in one way or 
another, either promoting or retarding recovery, and that the 
mode and degree of its action depend upon the relative 
development of different parts of the brain. Fully compre- 
hending these conditions, he is enabled to make the patient's 
mental activity an ally instead of an enemy in the curative 
process. The lawyer confessedly owes much of his success 
to a thorough knowledge of human nature, and in no way 
can he so well obtain this knowledge as through the medium 
of Phrenology and Physiognomy. The merchant may make, 
use of it in choosing his clerks and other assistants, so as to 
secure honesty and business talent ; the mechanic who under- 
stands Phrenology will not take for an aj)prentice a boy who 
is poorly developed in Construetiv.eness and Imitation or who 
lias a weak constitution ; and the farmer will look for a love 
of animals, an interest in plants, and a delight in the free, un> 
conventional life of the country to adapt a young man to the 
profession of agriculture. The statesman, the military com- 
mander, the actor, the artist, and the mechanic, all need a 
knowledge of it, and may profit greatly by its teachings. 




„, HE truth of Phrenology having long since been demon-S 
strated, all objections to it are futile, and hardly 
deserve to be cited in a work like this. Every truth 
must be consistent with all other truths. Truth is always 
safe. It is error that is dangerous and subversive of morality 
and religion. But as old objections to our science continue 
to be reiterated in certain quarters, and as some of our readers 
may not have seen the answers which have been made to 
them, and in which their utter groundlessness has been shown, 
we have decided to notice briefly a few of the more common 
and plausible of them. 

1. Number of the Faculties. — " Phrenologists do not agree in 
regard to the number of the faculties, and are constantly adding to 
them, showing that there is nothing fixed or certain about the system." 

Answer. — The differences among phrenologists in reference 
to the number of faculties, are. not greater but less than 
among the teachers of other systems of mental philosophy. 
In neither case does the circumstance invalidate the system 
taught. Phrenologists do not create faculties and organs ; 
they simply discover and describe them. They are not 
responsible for their number. Our list of organs is increased by 
the discovery of new ones. The functions of certain portions 
of the brain yet remain unknown. Is the science of astron- 
omy considered unsettled and untrustworthy because some 
astronomers " see stars" where others, with less development 
of the observing powers or inferior instruments, have found 
only blank space ? or because they are constantly adding to 
the number of the known planets ? In fact, is not the objec- 
tion under notice slightly absurd ? 

2. The Anatomical Objection. — " No phrenologist has ever 
observed the supposed lines of deniarkation between the organs 
assumed to exist in the brain, or has ventured, in th© eourst ef his dis* 


sections to divide a hemisphere of the brain accurately into any suclj 
number of organs as have been mapped out on the surface of the skull." 

Answer. — 1. Were this objection literally true, it would 
not be relevant, because it is an admitted principle of physi- 
ology that, in the present state of our knowledge, the form 
and structure of an organ are not sufficient to convey an idea 
of its function. The most expert anatomists had looked fre 
quently and long upon a bundle of nervous fibers, inclosed in 
a common sheath, without discovering that one set of them 
was the organ of voluntary motion, and another that of feel- 
ing; on the contrary, from their similarity of appearance, 
these nerves had, for ages, been regarded as possessing similar 
functions. Nevertheless, Sir C. Bell and Magendie have 
demonstrated, by experiment, that they possess the distinct 
functions of feeling and motion. It may therefore be proved 
by observation, that the different parts of the brain have dis- 
tinct functions, although it were true that no difference of 
structure could be perceived ; but-~ 

2. It is not a fact that no difference of appearance is dis- 
coverable. It is easy to distinguish the anterior, the middle, 
and posterior lobes of the human brain from each other ; and 
were they shown separately to a skillful phrenological anato- 
mist, he would never take one for the other. The mental 
manifestations are so different, according as one or other of 
these lobes predominates in size, that there is, even in this 
case, ample room for establishing the fundamental proposition, 
that different faculties are connected with different parts of 
the brain. Further: many of the organs differ so decidedly 
in appearance, that they could be pointed out by it alone. 

3. It is admitted that the organs of the brain are not per- 
ceived to be separated by strong lines of demarkation ; but 
the forms of the organs are distinguishable and the mapping 
out is founded in nature, though originally the result of the 
observation of the external surface of the cranium. 

8. Ignorance of Phrenologists. — " The teachers and disciples of 
Phrenology are ignorant of anatomy and physiology, and they delude 
only those equally uninstructed.''' 

Answer. — This statement is untrue, and therefore the objee- 


tion it is intended to embody falls to the ground. Drs. Gall 
and Spurzheim were admirable anatomists. The dissections 
of the brain made by the latter are acknowledged to have 
been the most satisfactory ever performed. The Messrs. 
Combe of Edinburgh, Drs. Vimont and Broussais of Paris, and 
Dr. Charles Caldwell of the United States, all advocates and 
teache/s of Phrenology, were also anatomists of great skill 
and learning; and among the " uninstructed" ones who have 
been "deluded" by their teachings, we may name such men 
as Dr. Samuel George Morton, Professor of Anatomy, etc., 
and author of "Crania Americana;" Prof. John Elliotson, M.D., 
F.R.S. ; Dr. Robert Hunter, Professor of Anatomy, etc. ; 
Prof. John Bell, M.D. ; J. V. C. Smith, M.D., Professor of 
Anatomy, and Editor of the Boston Medical and Surgical 
Journal • Nathan Allen, M.D., and John M. Carnochan, M.D., 
the most distinguished surgeon in the United States. We 
might increase this list indefinitely, but these names will 

4. Materialism, Fatalism, etc. — " Phrenology leads to materialism 
and fatalism." 

Answer. — If Phrenology be false, it can lead to nothing in 
the end but to the confusion of its supporters and to a merited 
oblivion ; but if it be true, and if materialism follow as a 
logical deduction from its facts, then, of course, materialism 
is true, and Phrenology is no more responsible for its existence 
than chemistry or astronomy is. It simply makes it known. 

But the materialist says that it is the medullary matter 
that thinks — in other words, that the brain is the mind. Now 
we teach no such doctrine, and Phrenology leads to no such 
conclusion. It declares that mind, in this mortal life and 
while linked to matter, is manifested through the brain. It 
has not necessarily anything to do with the question, What is 
the substance of the mind itself? It deals with mind as it is 
observed through its manifestations. If it be material, 
Phrenology has not made it so. If it be immaterial, Phre- 
nology can at best only make the fact apparent. We always, 
as all who know anything about our teachings are well 
aware, draw a broad line of demarkation between the organ 


of the mind and the mind itself. The one must perish, the 
other we believe will survive and 

Flourish in immortal youth, 
Unhurt amid the war of elements, 
The wreck of matter, and the crash of worlds. 

In regard to the asserted fatalistic tendencies of Phrenology, 
our reply must be mainly the same as in regard to the first 
part of the objector's statement. If man's constitution of 
body and brain determine unalterably his character and 
destiny, so that he can neither be better nor worse than he 
is, nor in any way different, Phrenology, although it may 
reveal this character and destiny, is no more responsible for 
it than theology is for the existence of evil. But while Phre- 
nology finds mind in this life connected with matter, and 
subject, so far as its manifestations are concerned, to certain 
organic laws, it also recognizes within the limits of its organ- 
ization, and as an element in the unalterable law of life, the 
freedom of the will, and a consequent personal responsibility. 

We are not responsible for our being. We are born into 
this world, made dependent while here upon material organs 
for our ability to act, and rendered liable to the accidents 
which happen to matter, and to the final death of the body. 
In these arrangements we had no voice — no freedom to choose 
when or where we would be born, or how we would be 
endowed in the matter of body and brain, and therefore can 
have no responsibility, so far as they are concerned. But 
there has been bestowed upon us, or rather made a part of 
our mental constitution, a sense of right and wrong, and with 
it the power to choose between good and evil — to rise or to 
fall — to improve or to deteriorate, and here we are responsible, 
not for our faculties, but for the use we make of them. 

As an additional evidence that Phrenology is in no way 
inimical to religion, we may here mention that it is now 
embraced and taught by many of the most prominent and 
truly pious clergymen of Europe and America, including 
Archbishop Whateley, Thomas Chalmers, D.D., Rev. Orville 
DeAvey, Rev. John Pierrepont, E. H. Chapin, D.D., Rev. Usury 
Ward Beecher, and many others. 




I ^I^II-E Mechanic Arts. — Artificial Flower Maker — 
Kw Baker — Basket Maker — Bookbinder — Blacksmith 

•MiSss — Bricklayer — Butcher — Cabinet Maker — Carpen- 
ter — Carriage Maker — Carriage Ironer — Carriage Trimmer — 
Compositor — Cooper — Dentist — Dressmaker — Engineer — 
Finisher of Work — Founder — General Mechanic — Gold 
Beater — Harness Maker — Inventor — Jeweler — Locksmith — 
Machinist — Manufacturer — Miller — Milliner — M older — Paper 
Box Maker — Painter — Penman — Picture-frame Maker — 
Printer — Shoemaker — Silversmith — Stone Cutter — Surgeon — ■ 
Tailor — Tanner — Upholsterer — Watchmaker. 

II. The Fine Arts. — Architect — Actor — Daguerrean — 
Designer — Draughtsman — Engraver — Florist — Historical 
Painter — Landscape Painter — Landscape Gardener — Modeler 
— Musician — Musical Composer — Poet — Portrait Painter — 

III. Literature. — Author — Dramatist — Editor, Literary, 
Commercial, Political, General — Historian — Jom*nalist — Lec- 
turer --Librarian — Novelist — ■ Orator — Poet — Preacher — ■ 

IV. Science. — Botanist — Chemist — Editor — Entomologist 
— Explorer (Scientific) — Engineer — Geographer — Geologist — • 
Lecturer — Mineralogist — Naturalist — Navigator — Phrenolo- 
gist — Physician — Surgeon — Surveyor — Zoologist. 

V. Education. — Author (of Educational Books) — College 
Professor — Editor — Elocutionist — Governess — Lecturer— 
Ph renol oo-Jst— Tether, 

VI. The " Professions." — Attorney — Author — Barrister 
— Clergyman — Counselor — Judge — Lawyer — Phrenologist ~-« 
Physician — Preacher — Surgeon. , v 



VII. Commerce. — Accountant — Agent — Auctioneer — 
Bookseller — Cattle Dealer — Commission Business — Clerk — 
Dry Goods — Fancy Goods — Grocer — Hardware — Lumber 
Dealer — Importer — Jobber — Merchant — Publisher — Sales- 
man — Stock Jobber. ^J^C3tl!asJ^is&4fi^S' 

VIII. — General Business. — Agent, General Business, 
Insurance, Express, Freight — Banker — Broker — Canvasser — 
Cashier — Collector — Conductor — Contractor ■ — Conveyancer 
— Financier — Post Master — President of Bank, Railroad, In- 
surance Company — Real Estate Dealer — Superintendent. 

IX. Miscellaneous Employments. — Diplomatist — Ex- 
plorer — Farmer — Fisherman — Fruit Grower — Horseman — 
Horticulturist — Hotel Keeper — Livery Keeper — Lumberman 
— Policeman or Detective — Politician — Seaman — Soldier — 
Statesman — Stock Raiser — Undertaker — Watchman. 


I. The Law. — Lawyers require the mental-vital tempera- 
ment, to give them intensity of feeling and clearness of 
intellect ; large Eventuality, to recall law cases and decisions; 
large Comparison, to compare different parts of the law and 
evidence — to criticise, cross-question, illustrate, and adduce 
similar cases ; and large Language, to give freedom of speech. 
Phrenology will tell you how to acquire and use these powers 
and faculties to the best advantage. Try it. 

II. Statesmanship. — Statesmen require large and well- 
balanced intellects, to enable them to understand and see 
through great public measures and choose the best coim^e, 
together with high moral heads, to make them disinterested, 
and seek the people's good, not selfish ends. 

III. Medicine. — Physicians require large Perceptive Facul- 
ties, so that they may study and apply a knowledge of 
Anatomy and Physiology with skill and success; full Destruc- 
tiveness, lest they shrink from inflicting the pain requisite to 
cure; lar^e Constructiveness, to o-ive them skill in surgery; 
large Combativeness, to render them resolute and prompt; 
large Cautiousness, to render them judicious anel safe ; and a 
large head, to give them general power of mind. Phrenology 


will predict, iu advance, whether or not a boy will succeed in 
this profession. The same is true of Dentistry. 

IV. Divinity. — Clergymen require the mental tempera* 
merit, to give them a decided predominance of mind over 
their animal propensities-; a large frontal and coronal region, 
the former to give them intellectual capacity, and the latter 
to impart high moral worth, aims, and feelings, elevation of 
character, and blamelessness of conduct ; large Veneration, 
Hope, and Spirituality, to imbue them with the spirit of faith 
and devotion ; large Benevolence and Adhesiveness, so that 
they may make all who know them love them, and thus win 
each over to the paths of truth and righteousness. Clergy- 
men will do well to consult Phrenology ; it would enable 
them to account for many seeming mysteries, and give them 
power and influence to do great good. It is in the most per- 
fect harmony with the highest Christianity. 

V. Journalism. — Editors also require a mental tempera- 
ment, with large Individuality and Eventuality, to collect 
•and disseminate incidents, facts, news, and give a practical 
cast of mind; large Comparison, to enable them to illustrate, 
criticise, show up errors, and the like; full or large Com- 
bativeness, to render them spirited ; large Language, to 
render them copious, free, spicy, and racy; and large Ideality, 
to give taste and elevated sentiments. An Editor who under- 
stands and applies Phrenology possesses a power which he 
may use with great effect. " He can take your measure." 

VI. Commerce. — Merchants require Acquisitiveness, to 
impart a desire and tact for business ; large Hope, to promote 
enterprise; full Cautiousness, to render them safe; large 
Perceptives, to give quick and correct judgment of the quali- 
ties of goods ; good Calculation, to impart rapidity and cor- 
rectness in casting accounts ; large Approbativeness, to 
render them courteous and affable ; and full Adhesiveness, to 
enable them to make friends of customers, and thus retain 
them. Why is one young man a better salesman than 
another? and why is one better worth a salary twice or 
ihrice the amount than another ? Phrenology answers this 
by pointing out the const:' ntional differences, and showing 


who is, and who is not, adapted to mercantile life. You had 
better consult Phrenology, and choose accordingly. 

VII. The Mechanic Arts. — Mechanics require strong 
constitutions, to give them muscular power and love of labor; 
large Constructiveness and Imitation, to enable them to use 
tools with dexterity; work after a pattern, and easily learn to 
do what they may see others do ; and large Perceptive Facul- 
ties, to give the required judgment of matter and the fitness 
of things. 

VIII. The Fine Aiss. — Artists require the mental tem- 
perament, high organic quality and large Ideality to impart 
the necessary intellectual appreciation of the laws of beauty 
and the rules of art, taste, refinement, delicacy, imagination, 
and lofty aspirations ; Constructiveness, to give skill in the 
use of the implements of art ; Imitation, to enable them to 
copy well ; and large perceptives to impart judgment of the 
forms and qualities of things.* 

* Finally, while we do most confidently affirm that there is a marked difference in 
the natural capacities and aptitudes of men for pu"ticular callings ; and that one will 
ehow great talent as an artist, mechanic, or merchant, another would excel in neither 
of these, but in something else; still it must be admitted that each of us, having the 
eame number and kind of organs and faculties— differing only in quality, culture, and 
degree of development — it is possible for most of us to learn to do very nearly the 
Bame thing. N;r is it best to push a student in those studies in which he already 
excels, but rather in the studies most difficult, in order to develop deficient or inactive 
faculties. If one already manifests mechanical skill, turn his attention to art, philos- 
ophy, or invention. If one is naturally musical, and wanting in mathematics, let 
music be made second to mathematics, and so on through all the studies. Tii* end 
gesired is tin even, harmonious, w« ^-baiuuyed character. 

13att H. 





f t, f rP 


-'--v '- 




.' 9* 


Opposite to the name of each organ or quality taken into 
account in a delineation of character, and in the column indi- 
cating its relative power, the examiner will place a figure, a 
dash, or a dot, to indicate the subject's development in 
respect to that organ or quality. The printed figures in the 
squai-e thus marked refer to the pages in this work on which, 
under the name of the organ or quality standing in the 
•margin opposite, will be found a description of the traits of 
character which the development is believed to denote. At 
the end of this description are other figures, indicating pages 
where directions for cultivating or restraining, as may be 
directed, the faculty in question. 

When an organ is half way between two sizes, it is repre- 
sented by two figures, as 5 to 6, or 3 to 4, etc., which is 
equivalent to 5-§- or 3-j-. In these cases both paragraphs 
referred to may be read, and a medium between the two 
will be appropriate. 

The sign +, plus, signifies about one third of a degree 
more, and — , minus, one third of a degree less, than the 
marks indicate, thus giving virtually a scale of twenty-one 



In a printed delineation, we can only approximate to the 
real character. No two persons, even though they be twins, 
are exactly alike. The almost numberless combinations of 
which the temperaments and mental faculties (to say nothing 
of the ever-varying physiological conditions involved) are 
susceptible, result in phases and shades of character as numer- 
ous as the individuals of the human race. To bring these 
out in a fully satisfactory manner requires a carefully written 
analysis. We can give, as a general rule, in a chart like 
this, merely the simple elements. The subject should com- 
bine them for himself, considering well the temperaments, 
and the modifications which must result from the action of 
one faculty upon another, and especially the influence of the 
predominating group and the leading organ. (See p. 124 
et seq. for further hints.") 

Our aim here is to give as accurate a delineation of 
character as the circumstances will admit. Absolute correct- 
ness in every particular is not claimed, nor would it be 
possible in following the markings of the several organs and 
conditions as here set down ; and due allowance, in every 
case, by examiner and examined, must therefore be made. 

For a Full Explanation 

of this Table, 



























Yital Temperament 

Breathing Power 

Circulatory Power 

Motive Temperament 

Mental Temperament . . . 




,. 151 






■J 152 






; "153 












J "154 





£>*1 lOO 













' ™ 




Size of Head.. ,4 .^inches 
Opening of Ears over/^i 
1. Amativeness. ... 

A. Conjugality 








- 15S 












2. Parental Lore 







3. Friendship 







5. Continuity 













E. Vitativeness 


, .164 





7. Destructiveness 

8. Alimentiveness 

9. Acquisitiveness 

10. Secretiveness 



v 165 










- 166 












T 168 

j "169 



11. Cautiousness 


6 169 





12. Approbativeness 

13. Self-Esteem. . . 






' 171 








L 172 






The Reader is Referred to Page 










' 3 


1 '* \ 


15. Conscientiousness ..... 


Ca< : > 





16. Hope 







17. Spirituality 



* 175 
[ 1 




18. Veneration 


i 176 

J 176 




19. Benevolence 



A 17? 










21. Ideality 







B. Sublimity 


., 179 





22. Imitation 


, 180 





23. Mirthfumess 







24. Individuality. . . ..... 


L 181 





25. Form 







2G. Size 







27. Weight 







28. Color 







29. Order 







30. Calculation 


■ 1*5 








K ■ 




32. Eventuality . . 







33. Time 







34. Tune 







35. Language 







36. Causality. . , 



v.) "189 




37. Comparison 







C. Human Nature. ...... 













, ..- „- ' — 

**»* — 1 


When a person has a perfect balance of temperament and a hat 
monious development of all the mental faculties and dispositions, a com 
panion should be chonen whoso development is similar ; but as this is very rarely 
round, each person should seek to form a anion with one who is properly contrasted 
bo that the excess of one may be balanced and modified by a leas development ia 
the other. 

The person for whom the foregoing Chart is marked should choose a companion 
baring a constitution and mental qualities as indicated by *he marking of this table 


Vital Temperament.. 

Strong. ■>. 



Motive Tempera- 


Medium. ,,. 


Mental Tempera- 


Medium.. U 


General Build or 

Tall and Bony. 


Short and Plump. 

Large. , 










Dark Brunette. 


Light, or Blonde 


Dark and Strong. 


Light and Sine. 




Light, or Blue. 

Social and Domestic. 




Energy of Character. 




8 elf-Reliance. ....... 




Prudence and Policy. 




Regard for Praise and 


- Medium. 


Economy and Love of 




Cheerfulness ana Self- 




Ingenuity, Skill, and 




Practical Talent 


.- Medium. 


Reasoning and Plan- 






Strong. : j, 



Moral aad Keligious. 

Very Stress. 

. HTalL 







(7.) Very Good. — You have a remarkably refined, sensitive, and 
delicate organization ; are susceptible of exquisite enjoyment and 
intense suffering ; and are greatly affected by extremes of heat and 
cold, especially the latter. You are adapted to fine and light work 
rather than to that which is coarse and heavy, have poetic and artistic 
tastes, lofty aspirations, tender sympathies, and a longing for congenial 
companionship. Being inclined to live too far above the common 
interests and pursuits of life, you fail to find full appreciation, and are 
subjected to much suffering by the rude coutacts involved among the 
every-day realities of this life. Cultivate a more robust bodily condi- 
tion — eat, drink, sleep, and grow fat — and try to live more in the real 
and less in the ideal world. [23.]* 
*^~~ (6.) Good. — You are fine-grained, high-toned, and delicately organ- 
ized ; susceptible, sensitive, and sympathetic ; refined in your tastes, 
pleasures, and aspirations; and repelled by whatever is low, coarse, or 
gross. You are liable to extremes in feeling and acting ; are likely to 
be either very good or very bad ; suffer keenly, enjoy deeply, and are 
generally either greatly exalted or greatly depressed ; have exquisite 
tastes ; love the beautiful, and desire, if you do not always seek, the 
good and the true. [23.] 

(5.) Full. — Yours is neither a coarse nor an over-wrought organiza- 
tion. Your tendencies, so far as your constitution affects them, are 
upward rather than downward, and your tastes elevating rather than 
degrading. You must avoid all those habits which minister to the 
animal passions and clog mental manifestation, and strive to elevate 
yourself far above the gross and groveling multitude. [23.] 

* These figures, and others similarly introduced : n [brackets] throughout this part 
of the work, refer to pages in the first part -" flow to Read Character"— where addi- 
tional inform'ition or explanatory remarks may he found. 


(4.) Average. — You are rather deficient in quality or delicacy in 
your organization ; plain in } r our tastes ; practical in your views ; not 
very poetical or sentimental ; and better fitted for the matter-of-fact 
routine of every-day life than for the higher walks of literature and 
art. Tou must cultivate the Mental Temperament, and be careful to 
contract no debasing habits, as one error, in a person of your organi- 
zation, is likely to lead to others and to final ruin. [23.] 

(3.) Moderate. — Your organic quality is below the average and 
your mental manifestations sluggish and weak. You are better 
adapted to manual labor than to study, and should not attempt any of 
the more delicate mechanical trades. You must try to make up, by 
the assiduous cultivation of your intellectual and moral powers, for 
your lack of natural organic endowments. Avoid, by all means, 
drinking, smoking, and low company. [23.] 

(2.) Poor. — Yours is a coarse-grained structure, and all your appe- 
tites, tastes, and desires are of the plainer, coarser kind. There is 
tb^ most urgent need in your case to restrain the passions; to put 
yourself in the way of moral and religious influences ; and to cultivate 
the intellectual faculties, so far as you are able. [23.] 


(7.) Very Good. — You are full of life ; vigorous, strong, buoyant, 
and hearty in the highest degree, and enjoy excpuisite pleasure in the 
mere sense of animal existence. [24.] 

(6.) Good. — All your bones, muscles, and nerves are apparently in 
good working order, and you enjoy the exercise of every organ of 
body and brain. You should now manifest your greatest efficiency in 
both physical and mental action ; find study and work alike easy and 
pleasant; and be able to endure toil, exposure, and hardship with 
impunity. [24.] 
_^ (5.) Full. — You have a full share of vigor and vital stamina ; can 
' work with efficiency and endure considerable hardship ; but have no 
life-force to waste in unnecessary and fruitless effort, [24.] 

(4.) Average. — You have a fair degree of health, but are liable to; 
ailments, and must live regularly, pay strict attention to the laws of 
your being, and be careful not to overwork yourself, and thus break 
down your constitution. [24?] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are deficient in vitality ; are easily fatigued ; 
often ailing, and seldom capable of any great degree of physical or 
mental exertion. You must avoid overdoing, and make the restoration 
of your health your first object. Stop all unnecessary drafts upon your 
remaining stock of vitality, and seek, by means of rest, sleep, and 
recreation, to increase it. Drinking, smoking, chewing, late hours, and 
all kinds of dissipation, must be entirely avoided. [24.] 

(2.) Poor. — You have but a small amount of health left, and must 


make use of every means within your reach for its improvement Try 
to arouse yourself to combat your ailments. Pluck is as essential in 
meeting the attacks of disease as in opposing a human foe. A strong 
will has saved many a life. " Courage and Hope " — let that be your 
motto. [24.] 


(7.) Very Largely Developed. — This temperament is character- 
ized by rotundity. You are plump, stout, full-chested, and fond of 
fresh air and the luxuries of life ; but you like play better than bard 
work. In mental character there is a tendency to impulsiveness, en- 
thusiasm, versatility, practicality, and to take a matter-of-fact view of 
things. Your fondness for good living, jovial company, sports and 
amusements, render you liable to fall into habits of intemperance, 
against which you must be continually on your guard. If you find 
yourself inclined to an uncomfortable obesity, your remedy must be 
icork, and a spare diet. Keep both body and mind actively engaged, 
and avoid indolence and the indulgences of the table as your greatest 
foes. By a rigid adherence to a low and moderate diet, and by vigor- 
ous manual labor, you may greatly modify and improve your tempera- 
ment, [20.] 

(6.) Largely Developed. — You are well-proportioned, full-chested, 
and amply supplied with the oil of life. All your joints are thor- 
oughly lubricated, and your mental machinery works without fric- 
tion. You are likely to manifest a good degree of business talent, and 
to be not averse to doing jovlv share of necessary work, when there is 
profit in it. You have great need to exercise all your moral sense, 
caution, and will-power in avoiding and resisting the temptations to 
excess in eating, drinking, and indulging the propensities, which so 
easily beset you. Occasional fasting, rather than feasting, should be 
practiced. [20.] 
jr (5.) Full. — You possess a fair share of the vital element, and partake 
of the characteristics noted in (6) and (7) in a proportionate degree. 
You need to increase rather than diminish this element. Every sort of 
dissipation should be avoided, and regular hours, with plenty of sleep, 
secured. [20.] 

(4.) Average. — Your vitality is sufficient to give the functions of 
body and brain a fair share of energy, and to sustain life and health 
if carefully husbanded ; but you should seek to increase it by a diet 
and habits promotive of alimentation and nutrition. Alternate exer- 
cise and rest ; sleep as much as nature seems to demand ; seek recrca- 
tion ; take life more easy ; eat plain but nutritious food ; enjoy all of 
life ; " laugh and grow fat." [20.] 

(3.) Weakly Developed. — Your constitution is deficient in the 
vital element, and you are languid and inefficient in consequence. You 


require much rest and sleep, and must be very careful not to overwork 
either body or mind [see previous section (4)], and assiduously make 
use of all available means to increase your vitality. [20.] 

(2.) Very Feebly Developed. — You have barely enough vitality 
to keep your bodily and mental functions in operation. You must 
make use of the very small stock you now possess, as capital to be 
used for the purpose of increasing it, as directed in previous sections. 
You must " stop the leaks," and give the reservoir time to fill up ; 
live on the interest, instead of consuming both interest and principal, 
and thus becoming so far impoverished that there shall be no hope of 
recovery. [20.] 


(7.) Very Good. — Your respiratory organs are admirably developed, 
and their functions well-nigh perfectly performed. Tor breathe freely 
and deeply, moving the abdominal muscles as well as the lungs, and 
filling your chest at every inspiration. The effects of this functional 
power and activity may be observed in your warm hands and feet, 
elastic motions, and buoyant spirits. [25.] 

(6.) Good. — You have a well-developed chest and excellent breath- 
ing power, indicated as in (7), only in a slightly lower degree. [25.] 

(5.) Full. — You are above the average in breathing power generally, 
but if your habits be sedentary, you will need to resort to artificial 
means to expand the lungs and to keep up the circulation. [25.] 

(4.) Average. — Your breathing power is only medium, but you 
have a fair share of warmth, and can keep your feet and hands warm 
by proper exercise. You should take the measures recommended on 
p. 26 (foot note) for expanding the chest, [25.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You breathe too little to thoroughly vitalize the 
blood, seldom filling the lungs, moving the chest but little, and the 
abdominal muscles scarcely at all ; are liable to colds, which have a 
tendency to settle on the lungs; have cold feet and hands and bin; 1 
veins near the surface. You must cultivate breathing power, and ex- 
pand the chest. This can be clone with great certainty, but you must 
begin carefully and avoid fatigue in your exercises. [25, 26 (note).] 

(2.) "Weak. — You are veiy deficient in the development of the 
respiratory organs, liable to colds and coughs, and predisposed to 
consumption ; but while your lungs remain sound, you may hope to 
ward off disease and greatly improve your breathing power and 
general health by right living and the necessaiy physical culture. 
In addition to the chest-expanding exercise [26 (note)], you must live 
much in the open air ; keep your rooms well ventilated ; sit, stand, and 
walk erect, bathe the chest frequently with cold water, rubbing it 
briskly with the naked hands, to bring the blood to the surface. Go 
uato the mountains, or take a sea voyage. [25.] 



(7.) Vert Good. — You have an excellent circulation ; a strong, 
steady pulse ; perspire freely ; and are able to withstand great cold and 
heat without discomfort. [26.] 

(6.) Good. — Your circulation is generally good, and your lower 
extremities seldom cold. You suffer little from clear cold weather and 
do not readily contract disease. [26.] 
-"""7 (5.) Full. — You have a fair circulation, but need bodily exercise tc 
keep the extremities warm in cold weather, and should promote this 
function by active employments or recreations. [26.] 

(4.) Average. — Your circulation is not remarkably good, and you 
sometimes feel chilly or have cold feet and hands. Promote the unL 
form movement of the vital fluid by brisk exercise, especially in cold 
weather. [26.] 

(3.) Moderate. — Your circulation is rather poor. You are very 
liable to cold feet and hands, headache, palpitation of the heart, and a 
dry skin ; can not withstand extremes of heat and cold, and need to 
exercise briskly and practice breathing fully and deeply, as recom- 
mended in previous section. [26 (note).] 

(2.) Weak. — You have a weak and very unequal circulation; suffer 
greatly from changes of temperature , are often chilly, even in warm 
weather ; are troubled with headache, pressure on the brain, and very 
cold extremities. The Turkish bath, if accessible, will benefit you; 
also tepid foot-baths, brisk and hard rubbing of the hands and feet, 
walking, and the breathing exercise. Horse-back riding is one of the 
very best exercises to promote and equalize the circulation. Skating, 
rowing, climbing the hills, etc., are also useful, when taken with proper 
aire, [26 (note).] 


(7.) Vert Good. — Your digestion is almost perfect, and you can eat 
with impunity any sort of food suitable, under any circumstances, to 
be received into the human stomach. [26.] 

(6.) Good. — Your digestive power is strong and your relish for food 
excellent. Plain substantial aliment suits you best, and you are able to 
make whatever you take into your stomach contribute to the nourish- 
ment of the system. [26.] 
_^- — ($.) Full. — You have good digestion, but not so strong that it may 
not be easily injured by improper food and wrong habits of eating. 
You must avoid heavy meals and indigestible articles of diet. Reg- 
ulale the quantity of food taken by the judgment, rather than by the 
appetite. [26.J 

(4.) Average. — You have only a fair degree of digestive power, and 
must be careful not to impair it by overeating, by the usa of condh 
Clients, stimulants, etc. [26.] 


(3) and (2.) Moderate or Weak.—You are predisposed to dys- 
pepsia ; often have a poor appetite ; suffer from indigestion, and, 
as a result, are apt to be irritable, peevish, dispirited, and gloomy. 
The improvement of your digestive function should be your first 
object and study. Eat plain and easily digested but nutritious food; 
let the quantity be moderate ; masticate thoroughly ; talk, laugh, and 
enjoy at your meals, or at least try to be in a cheerful, thankful, happy 
mood ; avoid a hurried feeling or an anxious state of mind ; take 
plenty of exercise in the open air; have your rooms well ventilated; 
practice full, deep breathing and other chest-expanding exercises, as 
indirect but important helps to the stomach ; and observe strictly all 
the laws of health. Correct this dyspeptic tendency by recreation 
rather than by stimulation. [26.] 


(7.) Very Strongly Developed. — The bony frame-work of your 
structure is strongly marked, and encased with only muscle enough to 
bind all firmly together; but what flesh you have is dense, tough, 
compact, and wiry. There is a tendency to angularity in your con- 
figuration. You love active, muscular work, and are endowed with 
great physical power and capacity for severe and prolonged exertion 
of both body and mind. In character you are energetic, efficient, de- 
termined, and persistent. You are adapted to active life, and to such 
enterprises as will give your energy, steadfastness, and perseverance 
full and free scope. See also (6.) [18.] 

(6.) Strong. — Your configuration and character are like those de- 
scribed in (7), in a somewhat lower degree. You have strong feelings 
and passions, but are also endowed with a powerful will and strong 
common sense with which to hold them in check. The restraining 
and regulating powers of the mind — Firmness, Self-Esteem, Conscien- 
tiousness, and Cautiousness — must be kept in constant activity to keep 
" your strong propensities within their proper sphere, for when they are 
bad, persons of your constitution are often very bad. You are capable 
of great things, but need strong self-government and restraint. [18.] 
^f (5.) Full. — You have a good share of motive power, and are vigor- 
ous, determined, and efficient. You are not afraid of work, or, for that 
matter, of anything else. Your tastes and abilities fit you for active 
life. See (6) and (7.) [18.] 

(4.) Average. — You are not deficient in motive power, but can not 
endure a long-continued strain upon either muscle or brain. You can 
work hard, but are not particularly fond of severe labor, preferring 
light or sedentary employments, and should cultivate muscular power 
and love of activity by such recreations and exercises as tend to de- 
velop bone and sinew. [18.] 

(3.) Moderately Developed. — You are deficient in the motive 



element of the constitution, lack strength for continuous exertion, and 
prefer sitting or lounging about to activity of any kind. Cultivate 
muscular power. [18.] 

(2.) Weak. — You are poorly endowed with muscular force, and the 
propelling and governing powers connected with the motive tempera- 
ment. You must give much attention to the cultivation of the motive 
apparatus. Walking, running, rowing, swimming, skating, and gym- 
nastics are all good exercises, but must be adapted to your weak con- 
dition, and increased as yon gain strength. Make yourself comfortably 
tired, but do not exhaust your small stock of energy and strength by 
too much exertion. [18.] 


(7.) Very Largely Developed. — You are delicate in structure, 
with small bones, a moderate development of muscle, finely cut fea- 
tures, and a high organic condition generally. Brain predominates 
over body, and your mental states have a powerful influence over your 
physical condition. You are refined in your tastes ; quick and delicate 
in your perceptions ; rapid in your mental operations ; emotional, sym- 
pathetic, aspiring, earnest, eager, and easily excited. You are admir- 
ably adapted, so far as constitutional qualities are concerned, to literary 
or artistic pursuits. If a mechanic, a manufacturer, or a merchant, one 
of the lighter and more elegant branches in these departments would 
suit .you best. See next section (6). [21.] 

(6.) A Large Development. — You are characterized as set forth in 
(7), only in a lower degree ; are more inclined to mental than to 
animal enjoyments ; fond of literature and art ; ambitious, clear-headed, 
discriminating, quick-witted, intellectually efficient, rather brilliant, and 
calculated to lead in the higher walks of literature, art, or science, 
provided you have had the necessary mental culture. Stimulants of 
all kinds should be avoided, as well as too strong or long continued 
mental excitements. [21.] 

(5.) Fully Developed. — You are well endowed mentally, and cal- 
culated (with proper culture) to speak and write effectively, and to 
\,ield considerable influence in the realms of thought ; being less sensi- 
tive and delicately organized than those in whom there is a larger pro- 
portional development of this temperament, you are better fitted to 
come into contact with people of all classes, and to control them by 
means of your superior mental development, backed by the vigor im- 
parted by a larger measure of vital and motive power. [21.] 

(4.) Average. — You have a fair degree of mental activity, and, with 
the advantages of education, are capable of attaining a position in in- 
tellectual society ; but you are better adapted to manual labor, mechan- 
ism, or to business than to the learned professions, so-called. [21.] 

(3.) Moderately Developed. — You have no real love for literature 


or art, are not fond of study, and would be apt to fall asleep oyer a 
good book. Yoa should cultivate a taste for reading. [21.] 

(2.) Poorly Developed. — You are dull in perception, and slow to 
comprehend even simple truths. Your judgment is poor, and you 
need the direction of minds more highly endowed. You should get 
sound advice, and follow it. [21.] 


(7.1 Very Great. — You are very agile, lithe-limbed, and quick- 
motioned, and your mental operations are equally rapid and facile. 
You are always wide-awake, eager, knowing, and brilliant. You are 
liable to overwork yourself and become prematurely exhausted. [27.] 

(6.) Great. — Yours is a restless, active, lively organization. You 
speak rapidly, comprehend quickly, and decide at once on the course 
to be pursued, and are in danger of excessive action, and consequent 
early exhaustion of the vital powers. [27.] 

(5) and (4.) Fell or Average. — You have a fair degree of activity, 
but are likely to be sufficiently deliberate to weigh the pros and cons 
before deciding how to act ; are not lazy, but prefer light work to 
heavy, and play to either. [27.] 

(3.) Moderate.— You are rather slow and deliberate in your move- 
ments, are seldom or never in a hurry, and always take plenty of time 
to consider. Your mental operations are slow, and you are apt to see 
the point of a joke, if at all, after the laugh is over. Wake up! [27.] 

(2.) Small. — You are too slow to be of much service to yourself or 
anybody else — decidedly inert. Try to cultivate activity bj pushing 
about. You should have some one " after you with a sharp stick." [27.] 


(7.) Yert Great. — You are remarkably impressible, very easily ex- 
cited, subject to extremes of feeling ; greatly exalted at one moment 
and much depressed the next ; driven now this way and then that by 
constantly changing impulses ; and very much disposed to exaggerate 
everything, whether good or bad. Your need is to restrain this ex- 
citability, first, by avoiding all stimulating food and drink, and all un- 
natural or violent mental excitements; and, second, by cultivating a 
calm, quiet, enjoyable frame of mind. Repose is the proper antidote 
of too great activity. [27.] 

(6.) Great. — You are constituted as described in (7), only in a some- 
what lower degree — too susceptible to external influences for ycur own 
welfare or that of your friends. [27.] 

j (5.) Full. — You are sufficiently susceptible to exciting causes, but 
-'not readily earned away by any sudden impulse ; are self-possessed, 
And act coolly and with forethought. [27.] 

(4.) Average. — You are very cool, deliberate, and placid, and allow 



external influences to sway you but little ; act from judgment and not 
from impulse, and are very equable in disposition. [27.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are rather dull, and can with difficulty be 
aroused by external causes ; rather cold and passionless, and show 
little spirit in anything. You may with advantage put yourself in the 
way of social excitements, and profit by mixing much with wid£- 
iwake people. [27.] 

(2.) Low. — Yours is a torpid sort of existence. You seem to be half 
asleep, and might almost as well be quite so. Try to arouse yourself 
and seek society and the excitements of busy, active life. [27.] 


(7.) Very Large. — If your organic quality be good and your ac- 
tivity sufficient, you should manifest extraordinary mental power ; and 
if there be also a proper balance between the various groups of facul- 
ties, you are capable of taking a place in the first ranks, among the in- 
tellectual giants of the age. Such a mind, backed up by adequate 
physical stamina, will overcome all obstacles, and achieve greatness in 
spite of all difficulties. You may not have had } r our full powers called 
out, but the capacity is here. [14.] 

(6.) Large. — Yours is a mind of great reach and power, and you 
can, if you will, make yourself widely felt in society. You are capable 
of managing extensive enterprises, taking broad views of things, and 
of drawing correct conclusions from ascertained facts. If you are a 
scholar, you should be widely known and admired in the sphere of 
letters, and exert great influence wherever the supremacy of mind is 
acknowledged. Much, however, depends upon the tendencies im- 
pressed upon your character by the predominating group of organs, 
and your power may be a blessing or it may be a curse to yourself and 
to the world, according to the manner in which it is used. [14.] 

(5.) Full. — With the proper physiological conditions [14, et seq.], you 
are capable of accomplishing much, and attaining a high position in 
the direction of the leading faculties, acquiring an excellent education, 
and manifesting talent of a high order, but have not that commanding 
and all-conquering genius which can bend everything to its will. [14.] 

(4.) Average. — With activity largely developed, and good bodily 
conditions, you are capable of manifesting good talent, and of suo 
ceeding well in a business for which you are specially fitted. Out of 
this sphere your abilities would be commonplace and your success 
small. You are quick of p3rception, but neither original nor pro- 
found. [14.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You have sufficient brain, if conjoined with good 
organic quality and a fair share of activity, to give you a moderate 
degree of ability in practical matters, but little planning or directing 
talent You will do best when working under the direction of persona 


better endowed than yourself with mental power. Strive to improve 
your intellect by means of reading, study, and the conversation of 
intelligent persons. [14.] 

(2.) Small. — You are weak in mind and need the guidance of other 
intellects in every undertaking ; are incapable of mauaging any 
business. [14] 




(7.) Veky Large. — You possess in a pre-eminent degree the desire to 
love and to be loved ; are irresistibly attracted by the opposite sex ; 
and are capable of exerting a similar power over them. You are 
winning in your manners ; very gentle and sympathetic, conforming 
to the tastes and wishes of the one beloved ; are devoted in your atten- 
tions ; yearn continually for the caresses and endearments of affection, 
and are made utterly miserable by coldness and indifference on the 
part of the beloved one. See (6.) [38.] With deficient coronal 
development, a low organic quality, or an inflamed state of the vital 
fluids, you would be very liable to the perversion of the procreative 
function, and to excesses ruinous to body and soul. If restraint be 
necessary, see I., 7. Restrain. [40.] 

(8.) Large. — You are as described in (7), but in a lower degree ; are 
very fond of personal beauty, and seek in the other sex good bodily 
development and a warm heart as well as intellectual capacitj' and 
moral worth. The love-element is a very influential one in your 
organization, and will affect powerfully, for good or for evil, your 
destiny in life, — for the fire that warms may also consume. Rightly 
controlled, and made subservient to moral principle, it will be a source 
of strength and happiness — a blessing to yourself and to others ; per- 
verted, it may lead to speedy and irretrievable ruin. Let your prayer 
be, " Lead us not into temptation !" If you are happily married, you 
are fortunate; if not, you should seek in matrimony, where alone it 
can be found, the satisfaction of your loving and yearning heart. 
Restrain. [40.] 


(5.) Full. — You love the opposite sex with much tenderness ; are 

/ somewhat ardent, but can control your desires; are very attentive toward 

those you love, honoring the other sex in a high degree and giving 

your confidence and esteem with your love. You are well calculated 

to enjoy the marriage relation. [37, et seq.] 

(4.) Average. — You may be warm and loving at times, but, in 
general, manifest only a fair degree of attachment to the other sex ; can 
enjoy the marriage relation, but need to have your love called out and 
cherished by a loving companion ; are likely to be refined and faithful 
in your affections and to honor as well as love your mate, if worthy 
and devoted to your happiness and welfare. [37, el seq.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are rather cold and indifferent toward the 
other sex, manifesting more friendship and respect than love ; 
but esteem and friendship may lead to warmer feelings toward a 
truly congenial companion ; so that while you might not find it dis- 
agreeable to live unmarried, you are capable, under favorable circum- 
stances, of being happier in the conjugal relation. With large Ideality, 
you would manifest more admiration than affection for the opposite 
sex. Cultivate. [39.] 

(2.) Small. — You are very indifferent toward the other sex, and have 
neither the desire nor the ability to win their love. Cultivate. [39.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You are almost entirely destitute of the love- 
element. Cultivate. [39.] 


(7.) Vest Large. — All your love must, as a necessity of your 
nature, be concentrated upon one person of the opposite sex, who will 
be to you the embodiment of all that is good and lovely, and whose 
faults you will be ever ready to conceal or overlook ; and you will 
require the same exclusive attachment in the chosen one. If fully 
satisfied in this respect, you will enjoy the marriage relation very 
highly. If still heart-free, you should be very careful to bestow your 
affections where they will be fully reciprocated, for any failure in this 
respect would be likely to affect very seriously your destiny in life. 
Restrain. [41.] 

(6.) Large. — You will require and seek but one intimate personal 
companion or mate, and are liable to be made very miserable by dis- 
appointment in love. Where yon truly love you must possess, and you 
should know no such word as " fail " in your " affairs of the heart." 
Being well mated, you will find your highest happiness in the society 
of the one you have chosen, all of whose virtues and attractions you 
will fully appreciate. You will tolerate almost anything in him or her 
except infidelity to the marriage relation. Restrain. [41.] 

(5.) Full. — You can love cordially and faithfully any person of the 
/other sex upon whom your affections may be placed ; but, if love be 



interrupted, can change and become equally absorbed in a new love. 
You would not die of a broken heart were the beloved object removed 
by death or otherwise placed beyond your reach. [40, et seq.] 

(4.) Average. — You are inclined to a single love and to union for 
life to a chosen one; but can readily change the object of your affec- 
tions, and, with Adhesiveness small and Conscientiousness moderate, 
may be coquettish. Cultivate. [41.] 

(3.) Average. — You are not particularly inclined to fickleness in 
■love, and are disposed, under favorable circumstances, to union for life, 
but are liable to be led astray by new faces and to allow an old love to 
be supplanted by new ones. Cultivate. [41.] 

(2.) Small. — You are inclined to the promiscuous society of the other 
sex and have little respect for the conjugal relation. Cultivate. [41.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You manifest none of this faculty and experi- 
ence little of the feeling it imparts. Cultivate. [41.] 


(7.) Very Large. — Your love for children and pets is inumse, and 
as a parent you would idolize your offspring and probably spoil them 
by pampering and hurtful indulgence, or by allowing them to rule 
instead of yielding obedience. If you have children, you suffer con- 
tinual anxiety on their account, especially when absent from them, 
and the death of one of them would be a blow almost too great to 
bear. Restrain. [44.] 

(6.) Large. — As a parent, you would be tender and indvdgent, per- 
haps, to a fault, unless restrained by high moral considerations, and 
are too apt to overlook the faults and imperfections of your young 
favorites, whether your own children or those of your friends. You 
are passionately fond of the society of the young, who are equally fond 
of you, and you will have groups of children clustering around you 
whenever you go among them. You must keep this faculty strictly 
under the control of moral principle, or it will lead to harm rather 
than good to the little ones you love so well. Restrain. [44 ] 

(5.) Full. — You are capable of loving your own children well, and 
Will do and sacrifice much for them, but will not be over-indulgent, 
and will feel no very strong attraction toward children generally, or 
toward animal pets. Cultivate. [43.] 

(4.) Average. — You will love your own children, but will care 
little for those of others. If Benevolence be large, you will be tender 
toward the helpless infant, but will like children better as they grow 
older. Cultivate. [43.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are rather indifferent even toward your own 
children, if you have any, and cold toward all others ; can bear little 
from them, and are not calculated to win then - affections. You care 
nothing for pets. Cultivate. [43.] 



(2.) Small. — You are inclined to be cold and indifferent toward your 
own children, and to manifest a positive dislike for all others. You 
need to bring your Benevolence, Adhesiveness, and Conscientiousnesa 
to bear in your dealings with them as well as to assiduously cultivate 
Parental Love. [43.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You will manifest little or no love for children, 
but will be guided in your treatment of them by other faculties. 
Cultivate. [43.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You are exceedingly warm-hearted, affectionate, 
and devoted ; are ready to make any sacrifice for your friends ; are 
blind to their defects and faults, and too much wrapped up in them 
for your own welfare or peace of mind. You should remember that 
even in friendship there may be an abnormal or perverted action — a 
mania, as it were — -and keep your heart free from idolatry. Even your 
friends are human and have their weaknesses. Restrain. [40.] 

(6.) Large. — You are very social, warm-hearted, and affectionate, 
enjoy the society of your friends in a high degree; cling to those you 
love through all changes of time and circumstance. Once a friend, 
you are one forever — in adversitjf as in prosperity — to aid, encourage, 
sympathize with, and console while living and to mourn wdien de- 
parted. You must be very careful in the choice of your friends, for 
you are liable to suffer much from the unworthine'ss and ingratitude 
of those to whom you may become attached. You are hospitable, and 
delight to entertain your friends at the social board ; are veiy popular 
among those who know you; are generally beloved, and have few 
enemies. Restrain. [46.] 

(5.) Full. — You are friendly and companionable with those whom 
you deem worthy, but are not disposed to sacrifice too much in their 
behalf; are hospitable ; cordial in your intercourse with those around 
you, and disposed to make friends; but your attachments are not 
always lasting, and you do not bind others to you by very strong bonds 
of affection ; neither are you likely to make many enemies. [44.] 

(4.) Average. — You can make friends, and are capable of consider- 
able affection for them under favorable circumstances, but will not be 
likely to mourn greatly over their absence. With large Acquisitive- 
ness, you will be apt to place business before friends, and make use of 
them to promote your interests, rather thai to sacrifice your interests 
in their behalf. Cultivate. [46.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You form but few attachments, and manifest but a 
moderate degree of affection for any one. If you make friends, it is 
more likely to be through some other good qualities you may possess 
than through your social nature ; and while you may be greatly re- 
spected and esteemed, you are not likely to be so generally loved. 
Cultivate. [46.] 


(2.) Small. — You do not like society, and are cold and indifferent 
toward those around you ; have neither the desire nor the ability to 
make friends, and possess little faith in friendship. Cultivate. [48.] 

(1 ) Very Small. — You seem to be utterly incapable of feeling 
friendship, or awakening it in others. Cultivate. [46.] 


(7.) Very Large. — Your love of home and country is very strong 
indeed, and you are liable to the most terrible feeling of homesickness 
when absent from them. You prefer poverty and the humblest posi- 
tion in life at home to wealth and station abroad, and would willingly 
die for " the old flag," which is to you the symbol of all that is dearest 
on earth. Restrain. [47.] 

(6.) Large. — You are very strongly attached to home ; love your 
native land with a pure devotion ; leave your place of abode with great 
reluctance, and are homesick and miserable if compelled to remain 
long away from it. You would not like the life of a Methodist itiner- 
ant, who changes his house so often. You become strongly attached 
to any place where you may reside ; desire above almost everything 
else a Iwme of your own, and when you have one, can scarcely be per. 
suaded to leave it for a day. To you, 

Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home t 
Restrain. [47.] 
sy (5.) Full — You manifest considerable attachment to home and 
f country ; prefer to live in one place, and surround yourself with the 
comforts of domestic life; feel some regret in leaving the place of 
your birth, or of long residence, but can easily change if circumstances 
require it ; and are not likely to get homesick even if compelled to re- 
main absent for a long time. [46.] 

(4.) Average. — You have some love for home, but can change your 
place of abode without much regret, and are not inclined to expend 
much time or money in improvements, or in surrounding yourself with 
home comforts. You are never homesick, and if Locality be full or 
large, are fond of traveling. Cultivate. [47.] 

(3) or (2.) Moderate or Small. — You care little for home or 
country ; are cosmopolitan in your tastes, and indifferent about places. 
You like to travel, and, with Continuity small, enjoy constant change 
of scene. Cultivate. [47.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You have no local attachments ; can " pull up 
stakes" and pack off on short notice. You rather prefer to live the 
life of a vagabond. Cultivate. [4?.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You have great application, and can attend to 
Ijut one thing at a time, and must stick to anything you have com- 


menced till you finish it ; are apt to he tedious and prolix, and to ex- 
haust the patience of your hearers or readers, as well as the subject of 
discourse. All sudden changes are distasteful to you, and there is a 
tendency to a monotonous sameness in everything you do. Restrain. 

(6.) Large. — You have great capacity for following out a train of 
thought and concentrating all your faculties upon one subject, and are 
noted for thoroughness in your studies, or in working out the details of 
any plan you have to execute. When you have commenced any picco 
of work, you wish to finish it before commencing anything else, and 
are annoyed by interruption or change of programme. In talking or 
writing you are liable, unless you take pains to guard yourself against 
it, to become prolix and tedious; tell long stories; are sometimes 
absent-minded ; very persistent and steady in any course of action de- 
termined upon, and have no patience with fickleness or sudden changes 
of plan. Restrain. [49.] 

(5.) Full. — You like to carry out to completion anything you have 
commenced, but are not greatly anno3 r ed by interruption, and can lay 
•^ down one thing and take up another withoutmuch disadvantage. Are 
tolerably thorough and patient ; can concentrate your thoughts when 
occasion requires it, and follow out a subject in all its details, but are 
not inclined to be tedious or " long-winded." [47.] 

(4.) Average. — You can concentrate your thoughts upon one thing, 
and dwell upon it till fully elaborated, or you can readily divert your 
attention to other matters ; prefer to do one thing at a time, but can 
have several irons in the fire at once, and attend to them all ; are capa- 
ble of consecutive thinking, but never tedious, and generally talk or 
write to the point. [47.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You love variety ; change readily from one thing 
to another; commence many things that you never finish; think 
clearly, perhaps, but not always consecutively ; lack connectedness 
and application, and should aim at more fixedness of mind and steadi- 
ness of character. Cultivate. [48.] 

(2.) Small. — You are inclined to be very rambling and incoherent ; 
very ready to begin, but having too little perseverance to finish ; fly 
rapidly from one thing to another, and no one ever knows where to find 
you, or in what mood to receive you. You talk about several things 
at once, and the listener is seldom much wiser for the information you 
seek to impart. You should have been a butterfly. Cultivate. [48.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You are made up of change and restlessness, and 
are never the same two minutes at a time. Cultivate. [48.] 


(7) Very Large. — You have an astonishingly tenacious hold upon 
life; resist disease with the utmost determination, and will die at last 



only after a protracted struggle. Your dread of the final change to 
which all mortals are subject is too great, and you should learn to look 
at it through the medium of religious faith rather than that of animal 
instinct. Restrain. [50.] 

(6.) Large. — You cling to life with great tenacity, and shrink from 
death as if it were annihilation. Your power to resist disease is such 
that you will " never say die," and will recover under circumstances 
Which would preclude hope in the case of any one less largely en- 
dowed with Vitativeness. You will not be likely to " die before your 
time," unless by accident; but should learn to fear death less, through 
faith in the life to come. Restrain. [50.] 

(5.) Full. — You love life, and are disposed to cling to it with te- 
nacity ; can resist disease with considerable power ; but have no great 
dread of death, especially if Hope and Spirituality be full or large, and 
if your Christian philosophy be correct on this subject. [49.] 

(4.) Average. — Your love of life is fair, and you are not disposed to 
yield unresistingly to the encroachments of disease, but have less 
power to resist sickness and death than one more largely developed in 
the region of Vitativeness. Cultivate. [50.] 

(3.) Moderate. — Your hold of life is not very strong; you care 
comparatively little for existence, for its own sake, but like to live on 
account of family or friends, or with a view to do good in the world, 
and will yield without any great or prolonged resistance to the attacks 
of disease. Cultivate. [50.] 

(2.) Small. — You have little dread of death ; no great power to re- 
sist disease, and care to live rather for the sake of others than from any 
love of life for its own sake. You would be likely to soon sink under 
the attacks of any serious disease. Cultivate. [50.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You have little if any desire to live merely for the 
sake of life itself, but value existence only as an opportunity to gratify 
the other faculties. You should try to appreciate more fully the value 
of life and health, and your duty in regard to their preservation and 
enjoyment. Cultivate. [50.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You are remarkably energetic, determined, and 
courageous ; ready to grapple with anything, fight against any odds, 
or to face danger or death in any form ,• let no difficulties discourage 
or baffle you ; love hazardous enterprises ; prefer a rough, daring life ; 
and, if Cautiousness be only moderate, have more valor than discre- 
tion. With a lack of moral restraint, or intemperate habits and low as- 
sociates, you would be quarrelsome, desperate, and dangerous. Re- 
strain. [53.] 

(G.) Large. — You are resolute, brave, determined ; fond of argu- 
ment ; with large Approbativeness, quick to resent an insult ; always 


ready to resist any encroachment upon your rights.; high-tempered; 
fond of opposition ; energetic in carrying out your plans; delight in 
opposing obstacles ; are spirited and cool in times of danger ; never 
/ lose your presence of mind ; and if unfavorably organized in other re- 
spects, or with bad habits and coarse and low-bred companions, may be 
pugnacious and quarrelsome. Under the control of the intellect and 
the moral sentiments, your energy and propelling power may be turned 
to good account, and made a blessing to yourself and the world. Re- 
strain. [53.] 

(5.) Full. — You manifest a disposition similar to that described in 

7(6), in a somewhat lower degree ; do not lack courage, energy, or relish 
for argument, but are not naturally contentious or quarrelsome. You 
may consider yourself happily endowed in respect to this element of 
character. [50.] 

(4.) Average. — Your manifestation of courage and energy will de- 
pend in a measure upon circumstances. You can be aroused to the 
manifestation of a good degree of combative spirit, and with large 
Conscientiousness, Firmness, Self-Esteem, and Approbativeness to 
back up Combativeness, may stand jouy ground resolutely and strike 
boldly in a good cause ; but with these organs moderate or small, and 
Cautiousness large, would be at times irresolute, or even cowardly. 
Cultivate. [53.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are rather inefficient and too little disposed to 
assert and maintain your rights ; give way too readily to opposition ; 
avoid argument and contention and show little resentment; shrink too 
much from rough and disagreeable contacts ; and will surrender much 
for the sake of peace. Cultivate. [53.] 

(2.) Small. — You lack self-defense ; are too gentle ; can not say 
" no ;" and are deficient in energy and spirit. Cultivate. [50.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You are almost destitute of courage and energy. 
Cultivate. [53.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You are very executive, can do two days' work 
in one, and are exceedingly resolute ; if perverted, you are prone to 
anger, and when greatly provoked may give way to ungovernable 
rage; and become stern, harsh, and violent; feel and manifest the 
most terrible indignation ; take pleasure in destroying and exterminat- 
ing whatever seems to be inimical to your wishes or stands in the way 
of your plans; have extraordinary executive ability; will bear down 
all opposition ; can endure pain heroically, or, if need be, inflict it upon 
others without compunction if not with positive pleasure. Your 
powerful executiveness must be kept strictly under tiic control of 

* We prefer tire term Exkcutlye:;e£s to that of Dcstructiveness. 


reason and moral principle, or it may at times manifest itself in acts 
of violence, cruelty, and revenge. Restrain. [57.] 

(8.) Large. — When angry you are inclined to be very bitter, severe, 
and cutting, and to use the most forcible language to express your 
indignation ; are apt to be unsparing and, with small Benevolence, 
merciless ; manifest great energy and executive power ; take pleasure 
in breaking, pulling down, uprooting, and destroying; could assist in 
cutting off an arm or a leg without faltering, or submit one of your own 
limbs unflinchingly to the surgeon, if necessary; are not averse to 
killing animals ; are fond of flesh meat ; and probably like your steaks 
" rare." You need the restraining influences of large Benevolence, 
Conscientiousness, and Cautiousness to keep your anger and your 
disposition to punish and destroy within proper bounds. Restrain. 

(5.) Full. — You can be forcible, determined, and indignant when 
aroused, but are not disposed to be vindictive, cruel, or unforgiving, 
-^Your anger is more likely to expend itself in sarcasm and bitter 
invectives than in acts of violence, but you may resort to force if too 
much provoked; will manifest a good degree of fortitude and energy 
in business; and can endure or inflict pain if necessary, but rather 
shrink from it. [51.] 

(4.) Average. — Your manifestations are similar to those described 
in (5), only in a lower degree. Cultivate. [56.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are not very forcible, executive, or severe ; 
your anger is not deep and you threaten more than you execute; you 
shrink from pain and inflict it upon others very reluctantly; are likely 
to be more beloved than feared. Cultivate. [56.] 

(2.) Small. — You are too tender-hearted ; very deficient in energy ; 
can neither bear suffering with fortitude nor inflict even necessary 
pain without great compunction. Cultivate. [56.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You are almost destitute of this faculty. Cul- 
tivate. [56.] 


(7.) Veev Large. — You enjoy your food very greatly ; are inclined 
to epicurean habits; find it difficult to control your appetite; live to 
eat rather than eat to live ; are in clanger of eating more than nature 
requires, and of mining your digestive powers by gormandizing. 
Restrain. [58.] 

(0.) Large. — Your appetite is generally excellent; you fully appre- 
ciate the good things of the table ; are in danger of over-eating rather 
than eating too little ; give your meals a too important place in your 
thoughts and in your arrangements ; and should guard yourself 
*"' against excesses. Restrain. [58.] 

(5.) Full. — You have a good appetite when in health, aud cat 



heartity of whatever is set before you ; enjoy the pleasures of the table, 
but do not set a too high value upon them ; and you can control your 
love for food and drink, making them subservient to their higher pur- 
poses. [58.] 

(4.) Average. — You enjoy your food well, but can easily control ap. 
petite, and are seldom disposed to over-eat. [58.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are inclined to be dainty ; have no very greet 
love for the luxuries of the table, but are particular in regard to tin 
quality and preparation of your food. You eat to live, and not for the 
pleasure of eating. [58.] 

(2.) Small. — You have no great relish for food, and care little what 
you eat, provided it will sustain life. Cultivate. [58.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You have little or no appetite. Cultivate. [58.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You are exceedingly fond of water ; love bath- 
ing, swimming, sailing, etc. ; and with a perverted appetite might 
easily contract the habit of drinking intoxicating liquors to excess, 
this being the form in which a perversion of this faculty is apt to mani- 
fest itself. You should beware of the " social glass." Restrain. [59.] 

(6.) Large. — You are often thirsty, and experience great pleasure in 
- — drinking ; also enjoy washing, bathing, swimming, etc. [59:] 

(5.) Full. — You enjoy water both internally and externally in a 
/fair degree. [59.] 

(4) and (3.) Average or Moderate. ^-You are not fond of water ; 
are rather averse to bathing ; dislike swimming, sailing, etc., and shrink 
from a sea voyage as something fearful. Cultivate. [59.] 

(2.) Small — You care little for liquid.3 in any form ; prefer solid 
food ; do not like to bathe ; and avoid going into or upon the water if 
possible. Cultivate. [59.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You have an instinctive aversion to water. Cul- 
tivate. [59.] 


(7.) Very Large. — Your desire for accumulation is excessive ; you 
love money with a devotion approaching to idolatry ; are close-fisted ; 
make hard bargains ; are meanly economical ; place the possession of 
property above everything else ; are penurious, avaricious, and miserly, 
and can be restrained from taking dishonest advantages to secure the 
coveted gain only by a good development of Conscientiousness; with 
this you will be honest, but close and exacting. Restrain. [62.] 

(6.) Large. — You have the disposition and ability to turn everything 
to a good accouut ; are industrious, economical, and close ; buy cheaply 
and sell at the highest price ; have great love for wealth, and a strong 
tendency to accumulate, but, with large Benevolence, spend freely 



where your sympathies may he enlisted. You are liahle, unless you 
hold this strong propensity in check, to become penurious and miserly 
as you grow older. Conscientiousness, Benevolence, and Adhesiveness 
should be constantly called into action with Acquisitiveness, so that 
everything shall be honestly got and liberally expended, for the benefit 
of the world in general and of your friends and neighbors in par- 
ticular. Restrain. [62.] 

(5.) Full. — You are industrious in acquiring ; take good care of what 
you get ; value property for its uses ; are saving, but not avaricious or 
close ; ready to help your friends, but not willing to impoverish your- 
self, and are not likely to spend quite so fast as you earn. [59.] 

(4.) Average. — You have a fair appreciation of the value of prop- 
erty, and considerable desire to accumulate, but will be governed in 
your expenditures by other faculties, and may keep yourself poor by 
living up to the limits of your income. Cautiousness should be called 
to the aid of Acquisitiveness, so that provision be made for the future. 
Cultivate. [61.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You may seek property with considerable zeal and 
interest, but will value it merely as a means, not as an end ; will be 
economical when your necessities require it, but are apt to disregard 
small expenses, and are very likely to spend about as fast as you earn. 
Your money -making talent is but moderate, and you have no love for 
" buying, selling, and getting gain" for its own sake. Cultivate. [61.] 

(2.) Small. — You hold your money too loosely ; have more talent 
for spending than for getting ; are liable to contract habits of extrava- 
gance, aud to live beyond your means. Cultivate. [61.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You are wasteful, extravagant, and idle, and will 
probably always be poor. Cultivate. [61.] 


(7.) Very Large. — Your ability to restrain your feelings, to evade 
scrutiny, and to conceal your plans and intentions is very great. You 
are reserved, politic, guarded, shrewd, enigmatical, and mysterious ; so 
much so, perhaps, that your most intimate friends are never sure that 
they really understand or know you. With small Conscientiousness 
you would be tricky, deceptive, double-dealing, and untrustworthy, 
and might, with large Acquisitiveness and small Cautiousness, both 
cheat and falsify. Restrain. [64.] 

(6.) Large. — You are reserved in the expression of your sentiments ; 
keep your plans and designs to yourself; are very discreet ; delight in 
concealment ; are fond of surprising your friends ; incline to practice 
strategy; prefer indirect approaches to a straightforward course ; and, 
even when }^our purposes are entirely honest and commendable, may 
often resort to cunning devices to accomplish them. Your character 
and intentions are too carefully covered up, aud you subject yourself 



to suspicion where there is no better ground for it than the uncertainty 
by which you delight to surround yourself and your affairs. With 
Acquisitiveness large, you wdl get, aud try to keep, all the property 
you can. Restrain. [64.] 

(5.) Full. — You can keep a secret ; have a good degree of self-gov- 
ernment; can conceal your emotions if necessary; keep your plans 
well hidden ; and are discreet, but not disposed to be cunning, sly, or 
hypocritical. [62.] 

(4.) Average. — You have no great degree of reserve ; are inclined 
to be outspoken and frank, but can keep your own counsel and re- 
strain the manifestation of your feelings, except under violent excite- 
ment, when you are liable to give your emotions or opinions full 
expression. [62.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are inclined to pursue an open and direct 
course ; to express your sentiments fully on proper occasions ; possess 
little reserve, and are liable, in unguarded moments, to imprudence in 
speech if not in conduct. You are sincere and frank, and generally 
express your thoughts and emotions in a clear, unequivocal manner. 
Your friends know just what you are, see both your virtues and your 
faults, and will find you neither better nor worse than you seem. [62.] 

(2.) Small. — You are open, spontaneous, and transparent; have 
little power or disposition to conceal your feelings, and generalby speak 
out exactly what you think. Policy, cunning, evasion, equivocation, 
strategem, and indirection have no place in your nature ; but you are 
open and above-board in eveiything. You have hardly enough policy, 
restraint, or self-government for your own good. Cultivate. [64.] 

(1.) Vert Small. — You disclose everything; can not keep a 
secret ; and tell all you know, if not more. Cultivate,. [64.] 


(7.) Vert Large. — You are too cautious, watchful, anxious, and 
easily worried ; are in perpetual fear of evils and accidents ; dare not 
advance lest you should go wrong ; are timid, afraid to take responsi- 
bilities or to run risks ; procrastinating, cowardly, and easily thrown 
into a panic. You are made miserable by groundless fears, and should 
try to make use of your reason in combating them. Restrain. [67.] 

(6.) Large. — You are careful, prudent, watchful, anxious, and apt to 
procrastinate; are slow in coming to a decision; try to be always on 
the safe side ; are judicious in making plans, but apt to be more slow 
and cautious in carrying them out than is consistent wi!h the highest 
success, and lose many a good opportunity through fear to take a little 
risk. You are apt to be over-solicitous about the health or welfare of 
children or friends, aud to give yourself unnecessary pain in view uf 
evils which may never come. Retrain. [67.] 

(.5.) Full. — You are generally cartful, prudent, and deliberate; are 




not inclined to procrastinate, but take proper time to consider; are 
watchful rather than suspicious; are judiciously cautious, but not 
timid. Under excitement you might act rashly; but are generally safe, 
and -work -with well-laid plans. [65.] 

(4.) Average. — You are capable of being prudent and careful, hut 
with an excitable temperament may be rash and unreliable, acting 
rather from impulse than from judgment ; are inclined to act rather 
hastily, and may sometimes get into trouble by a lack of due delibera- 
tion. Cultivate. [66.] \ 

(3.) Moderate. — You are rather careless and imprudent ; liable to 
suffer from want of forethought ; meet with many accidents ; take too 
many risks ; undertake enterprises without counting the cost ; are 
afraid of nothing ; and are apt to " get into hot water." Cultivate. [68.] 

(2.) Small. — You do not know what fear is ; are rash, reckless, 
and liable to rush headlong into difficulties. Cultivate. [66.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You are as described in (2), only in a lower 
degree. Have no prudence. Cultivate. [66.] 


(7.) Vert Large. — You are exceedingly sensitive to praise or 
blame ; care too much for public opinion ; are mortified by censure 
and greatly elated by words of commendation ; are ambitious of 
notoriety, distinction, or respectability ; and are liable, if this faculty 
be not kept under good control, to be ostentatious and vain. You are 
obsequious where courtesy only is required. Restrain. [69.] 

(8.) Large. — You are fond of praise and easily wounded by a word 
of censure or criticism; are too anxious to please others, too ambitious 
to shine, and too much alive to the smiles or frowns of the public for 
your own peace of mind. You are polite and courteous in the extreme, 
and unless Conscientiousness be large may sometimes be false to truth 
and duty for the sake of being agreeable, or be guided too much in 
what you say and do by the consideration of what others may think or 
say of 3'ou. Self-Esteem and Conscientiousness should be exercised 
against your too great susceptibility to the influence of public opinion. 
No matter what " Mrs. Grundy" may say. Restrain. [69.] 

(5.) Full. — You have a good degree of respect for the opinions of 
others; value praise, but will not sacrifice self-respect or principle to 
gain it; can endure censure when administered in a proper spirit; like 
to appear well, but are not over-anxious about appearances; with large 
Cautiousness value character highly ; are courteous but not obsequi- 
ous ; and have a fine degree of ambition. [67.] 

(4.) Average. — You are not insensible to praise or blame, but are 
rather independent and careless of public opinion ; you appreciate the 
commendation of your fellow-men, but are not much elated by praise 
or deeply Y^ounded by censure. You are not given, to flattery or 


Insincere compliments ; and are hardly enough disposed to practice the 
graces of courtesy or to assume a winning address. Cultivate. [69.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You have but little regard for popularity ; are not 
very complaisant, and despise flattery and idle compliments. Censure 
does not disturb you, and you care little for praise. Cultivate. [69.] 

(2.) Small. — You care little what others think or say of you ; have 
no respect for etiquette, style, or fashion ; are brusque and unpleasing 
in manners; and too independent to be popular or beloved; put too 
low an estimate on public opinion. Cultivate. [69.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You are indifferent alike to praise and censure, 
and care nothing for reputation. Cultivate. [69.] 


(7.) Vert Large. — You are very dignified, haughty, imperious, 
domineering, proud, high-headed, and stiff-necked ; place self above 
everything else ; are ambitious and aspiring in the highest degree ; and 
unless restrained by other strong faculties are liable to be self-conceited, 
supercilious, and repulsively pompous and overbearing. Veneration 
should be made, as far as possible, to off-set your self-sufficiency. 
Too much dignity is a defect and offensive ? Restrain. [72.] 

(6.) Large. — You think quite highly enough of your own abilities ; 
are veiy self-reliant ; are proud and dignified ; seldom ask advice, and 
never follow it when given; will not stoop even to conquer; aim 
high ; are not satisfied with moderate success or with a small business ; 
desire to surpass all others — to stand at the- head of your class or pro- 
fession ; and with Hope full or large, " know no such word as fail." 
"With large moral organs, you will command universal respect ; but if 
governed by the propensities, will be egotistical, haughty, domineering, 
and rather feared and hated than esteemed. Restrain. [72.] 

(5.) Full. — You evince a good degree of self-respect, dignity, and 

7 aspiration, but are not proud, overbearing, or greedy of power ; are 
disposed to listen to advice though you may seldom follow it ; and 
prefer the place of a leader to that of a follower. Respecting yourself, 
you will secure the respect of your fellow-men. [89.] 

(4.) Average. — Your manifestation of this faculty will depend 
mainly upon its combination with those that are. larger, but you are in- 
clined, in the main, to place about a fair estimate upon yourself and to 
act with a becoming degree of ambition, dignity, and self-reliance. 
Cultivate. [71.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are rather humble than proud; underrate 
your own abilities and worth ; lack dignity and self-assertion ; allow 
your inferiors to take leading positions which of right belong to your- 
self; are apt to put yourself upon an equality with the unworthy, and 
to do trifling or mean things of which you are afterward ashamed; 



lack dignity ; and are too familiar "with inferiors to be respected even 
by them. Cultivate. [71.] 

(2.) Small. — You lack self-appreciation, dignity, and independence ; 
are too humble ; easily discouraged ; have too poor an opinion of 
yourself to command the respect of the world. Cultivate. [71.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You seem to be nearly destitute of this faculty. 
Cultivate. [71.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You can not be driven, and are not easily per- 
suaded ; are sometimes disposed to be obstinate ; have an unshaken 
stability of purpose ; are very persevering, tenacious, and averse to 
change ; and sometimes defeat your own purposes by too great self- 
will. One often gains a great deal by yielding a little. Try to be 
more pliant. Restrain. [74] 

(6.) Large. — With moral principles, you would be steadfast and reli- 
able ; can not be driven ; are not easily convinced that you are wrong ; 
generally carry your point by persistent effort ; are very determined 
and positive; set in your way; sometimes willful, if not obstinate. 
With large Causality you may j-ield to reason, or with large Adhe- 
siveness be persuaded by friends ; but with Combativeness and Firm- 
ness well developed, adhere tenaciously to preconceived opinions, right 
or wrong, and never change a plan once adopted. Restrain. [74.] 

(5.) Full. — You manifest a good degree of stability, determination, 
and perseverance, but are not set in your way or obstinate, and can 
change your opinions or purposes when they are shown to be erroneous 
or impracticable. Under the influence of large Cautiousness, you may 
evince irresolution and procrastination; but with Conscientiousness 
well developed, can not be turned from what you think truth and right 
require of you. You are more easily persuaded than driven. Cul- 
tivate. [74.] 

(4.) Average. — You have hardly enough stability and fixedness of 
purpose, and unless this faculty be supported by full or large Com- 
bativeness, Conscientiousness, or Causality, will be too easily influenced 
by those around you, and too ready to abandon your positions if 
attacked. Cultivate. [74.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are too much inclined to change ; too easily 
persuaded ; lack steadfastness ; are prone to say " I can't ;" are often 
irresolute, and inclined to go with the current. Cultivate. [74.] 

(2.) Small. — You are unstable and wavering ; fitful, impulsive, and 
fickle ; have no will of your own, and are liable to be constantly the 
victim of circumstances. Cultivate. [74.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You are a perfect weather vane, changing with 
the slightest variation of surrounding circumstances. Try to hold 
yourself at a point. Cultivate. [74.] 



(7.) Vert Large. — You are governed by moral principle ; are 
scrupulously exact in matters of right ; perfectly honest ; very ready 
to accuse yourself and to repent of any wrong ; are inclined to be 
censorious ; make too little allowance for the weakness and imperfec- 
tion of human nature ; are exacting of friends ; set up a very high 
standard of morality, and are tormented by remorse if you go astray 
from the narrow path you have prescribed for yourself. You are 
liable, unless the faculty be controlled, to become morbidly sensitive 
in matters of conscience. Restrain. [76.] 

(6.) Large. — You are disposed to be strictly honest and upright in 
all your dealings ; hate whatever is unjust or contrary to your ideas of 
right; feel very guilty when conscious of having done wrong; are 
very severe in your reproofs of wrong-doing, but will forgive those 
who show repentance. You always consult duty before expediency ; 
seek to know what is right, and then pursue it with singleness of heart ; 
but with a false education may do conscientiously, and in the belief that 
it is right, what is really wrong ; or with strong propensities may be 
led astray, but will quickly repent and seek to reform. You are per- 
haps inclined to be over-penitent and self-accusing as well as too 
exacting and censorious in regard to others. Restrain. [76.] 

(5.) Full. — You have strong feelings of justice and are honest and 
upright in all your intentions, but may yield to the influence of stronger 

/faculties against your conscientious scruples. You give expediency 
some weight, but are never wholly satisfied "with yourself unless walk- 
ing in the path of rectitude. Duty is generally uppermost in your 
mind, but is not always the governing motive in your conduct. You 
do not always resist temptation, and often sin, but as often repent with 
sorrow and regret. Cultivate. [76.] 

(4.) Average. — You are inclined to do what is right and to be 
guided by moral principle, but have not always the strength to resist 
the temptations held out by stronger faculties, and when you do 
wrong are inclined to justify yourself. You are too often governed in 
your conduct by expediency rather than by considerations of duty or 
moral right. With large propensities and moderate Self-Esteem, 
Veneration, and Spirituality, you may manifest much selfishness and 
but a weak sense of duty, honor, or honesty ; but with these conditions 
reversed will be honorable and trustworthy under ordinary tempta- 
tions. Cultivate. [76.] 

(3.) Moderate. — Your ideas of right and wrong are rather feeble, 
and you are inclined to allow interest rather than duty to rule ; but 
may be restrained by Approbativeness or Cautiousness from dishonest 
or dishonorable actions. Cultivate. [76.] 

(2.) Small. — You have few scruples of conscience, and do right as a 
matter of expediency or through fear of the consequences of an 


opposite course, rather than from moral principle; are governed by 
expediency. Cultivate. [76.] 

(L) Very Small. — You are almost entirely destitute of moral 
principle. Cultivate. [70.] 


(7.) Very Large. — Your expectations are almost unbounded. 
Everything desirable seems attainable; you build castles in the air; 
hare many ships at sea, all of which you think sure to come in loaded 
with treasures ; and, living in the future, which is always bright, you 
are generally joyous, sanguine, and happy. You are constantly dis- 
appointed ; never realize half that you expect ; and spend your life in 
a world of brilliant illusions. Restrain. [78.] 

(6.) Large. — You are inclined to overrate the future ; look on the 
bright side of things ; overlook obstacles and evih ; attempt much 
more than you can accomplish ; console yourself when disappointed 
by the anticipation of better fortune next time ; are a firm believer in 
" the good time coming ;" are sanguine, buoyant, and joyous ; never 
despair ; " hope on, hope ever ;" live in the future more than in the 
present; are liable to be led into extravagant expenditures and exten- 
sive speculations on the most delusive grounds and with disastrous 
results. Restrain. [78.] 

(5.) Full. — Your expectations are generally reasonable ; you are 
^^sanguine and enterprising ; often realize more than you expect. You 
/are not much inclined to castle building, and " when your ships come 
home from sea " anticipate only ordinary cargoes ; are neither despond- 
ing nor too much elated. [77.] 

(4.) Average. — You are inclined to expect and to attempt too little 
rather than too much ; get too easily discouraged by the obstacles you 
encounter, some of them imaginary ; look on the dark side at times, 
and are disposed to be satisfied with the present instead of looking 
forward to the future ; generally count the cost and make safe invest- 
ments. Cultivate. [78.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are very moderate in your expectations of the 
future ; inclined to despondency ; often look on the dark side ; lack 
enterprise, and are afraid to attempt any great enterprise ; make sure 
gains, but small ones ; live in the present, and have more fear than 
hope for the future. Cultivate. [78.] 

(2.) Small. — You expect little from the future but misfortune ; see 
so many obstacles and discouragements ahead that you dare attempt 
very little ; are very liable to become despondent and melancholy. 
Cultivate. [78.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You expect little or nothing that is desirable, 
and undertake nothing for fear of loss. Cultivate. [78.] 



(7.) Very Large. — You have strong intuitive perceptions of what is 
right and hest; have faith in spiritual monitions ; and are most likely 
to take the true course when you allow yourself to be guided by what 
you internally feel to be the right way. A morbid or undue action of 
this faculty may lead you to become superstitious ; to blindly believe 
in dreams, omens, fortune-telling, and false prophecies, or to induce 
religious fanaticism. It must be properly regulated, and made to art 
in harmony with reason, though it may transcend it. Restrain. [SO.] 

(6.) Large. — You have a large measure of faith ; an internal con- 
sciousness of right, duty, truth, falsehood, and what is best; love to 
meditate on spiritual subjects — the immortality of the soul, the future 
life, the existence and perfections of God, and the destiny of man; 
enjoy spiritual communion, or the blending of soul with soul ; and, if 
Veneration be large, find ecstatic happiness in fervent adoration of 
the Deity. In certain states of the physical system, one may be natur- 
ally clairvoyant ; be forewarned in visions or in dreams ; perceive the 
highest truths by intuition, and even possess prophetic gifts. One must 
carefully guard against the perversion of this noble and exalted faculty 
(see 7), and not allow our living faith to degenerate into superstition, 
or our piety to become mere fanaticism. Restrain. [80.] 

(5.) Full. — You are not lacking in the ground-work of faith ; have a 
good share of spiritual feeling, and considerable, intuitive inspiration ; 
but do not always allow yourself to be guided by the premonitions 
which would lead you aright. You desire to believe in all truth, but 
are sometimes beset by doubts. Cultivate. [SO.] 

(4) Average. — You are not destitute of the light within ; have 
some spiritual monitions, and are not inclined to disregard the guidance 
of the internal sense ; but your intuitions are not always sufficiently 
distinct to insure their full influence, or your belief in their authority 
so implicit as to make them very potential in your life. Cultivate. [80.] 

(3.) Moderate. — The spiritual part of your nature is not so influen- 
tial as would be desirable ; you have rather indistinct perceptions of 
spiritual things ; lack faith ; believe little that can not be logically 
proved; rely on evidence rather than on intuition; and would "prove 
all thing's " in order to " hold fast that which is good." Cultivate. [80.] 

(2.) Small. — You have very weak perceptions of spiritual truths; 
must have proof before believing ; are not guided by faith — a doubting 
Thomas ; have no premonitions or warnings, and do not believe in 
them. Cultivate. [80.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You are nearly destitute of the spiritual senti- 
ment — believe little or nothing ; are skeptical in regard to a future life ; 
ridicule the idea of revelations from Heaven, and treat premonitions 
and warnings with contempt. Cultivate. [SO.] 





(7.) Very Large. — You are eminently respectful, deferential, and 
inclined to be religious, prayerful, and devoted to the worship of God; 
circumstances favoring, you would manifest extreme fervor in your 
petitions before the throne of Grace; evince great reverence for time- 
honored usages, forms, ceremonies, and institutions ; and are pro- 
foundly respectful toward the aged, the good, or the great. Bestrain. 

(G.) Large. — You are, by organization, strongly inclined to worship ; 
take great delight in religious exercises; are fervent in prayer; feel 
awed in the presence of the great; are very deferential toward the 
aged ; naturally conservative in your views ; reverence ancient forms 
and ceremonies ; are inclined to adhere to long-established customs 
and to admire the " good old ways." You have need to beware of the 
perversion of this faculty, leading to religious bigotry, slavish fear, and 
the domination of a blind impulse. Carefully direct, If not Restrain* 

(5.) Full. — You are not lacking in devotion, respect for superiors, 
reverence for age, or a fair degree of conservative feeling in reference 
to established institutions; but these emotions are greatly influenced 
by circumstances, and are strongly or weakly manifested accordingly 
as they are incited or restrained by other faculties. There may often 
be an internal conflict in you between the worldly and the spiritual. 

(4.) Average. — You are inclined to worship when the devotional 
feeling is specially called out, but are apt to make religion subservient to 
business or to whatever else may be your dominant tendency. Acting 
with Conscientiousness and Benevolence, your Veneration will dispose 
you to make justice, mercy, and good works the basis of your religion, 
while the rites of worship will be esteemed less important. Cultivate. 

(3.) Moderate. — If you are religious, it is probably because your 
education has been favorable to it, and were fortunate enough to have 
been brought up under religious influences ; but your religion is one 
of works rather than of humility, submission, and faith. You have 
little respect for customs or institutions merely on account of their 
antiquity, and no reverence for creeds, rites, and ceremonies. Culti- 
vate. [83.] 

(2.) Small. — You experience little devotional feeling, and are de- 
ficient in reverence for age and respect for superiors. Cultivate. [83.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You seem to be nearly destitute of reverence 
and respect, and have no devotional feeling. Cultivate. [83.] 

(7.) Very Large. — You have a large, loving, kindly heart; are 




remarkably benevolent, charitable, and forgiving ; have ready sympa- 
thies and an open purse ; .and with moderate or small Acquisitiveness 
may impoverish yourself to assist others, or with small Conscientious' 
ness spend in charity the money which of right belongs to your 
creditors. "Be just before you are generous," and do not allow 
sympathy to overrule judgment. Restrain. [83.] 

(0.) Large. — You are very tender, generous, and kind-hearted; 
ready to sympathize with suffering and to relieve want, to the extent 
of your means; prefer to suffer yourself rather than to see others 
suffer ; are charitable, forgiving, and merciful ; a " good Samaritan," 
and, in this respect, a true follower of Him who " went about doing 
good." [83.] 

(5.) Full. — You are kind and obliging; like to see others happy, 
and desire to make them so ; but will not overtax yourself to relieve 
your neighbors of their burdens, and may allow selfish feeling to over- 
rule your kindness. With Conscientiousness full or large, will " be 
just before you are generous." Cultivate. [83.] 

(4.) Average. — You are kind to those you love, especially if 
Adhesiveness be large, and may practice general benevolence through 
the influence of Approbativeness or for selfish ends, but are not inclined 
to philanthropy. Cultivate. [83.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are not inclined to be obliging, but manifest 
a feeling of indifference in regard to the comfort or welfare of those 
around you; are rather selfish and unsympathizing.. Cultivate. [83.] 

(2.) Small. — You care little for the sufferings of others, so long as 
you are yourself at ease. " It is not my affair," you say. You have 
no " sweet sympathy " in your soul. Cultivate. [83.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You are almost utterly selfish — have no generous 
or sympathetic feelings. Cultivate. [83.] 


(7.) Vert Large. — You should manifest remarkable mechanical 

ingenuity, a passion for making things, and (with Causality large) 

great inventive talent. You take to tools naturally, and almost seem 

to be master of all trades without having learned them ; you can make 

almost anything ; and are constantly contriving " improvements ;" 

you might devote yourself to mechanical invention with great benefit 

to the world, if not to yourself; but must beware of "perpetual 

motions," or of monomania on this subject. Restrain. [88.] 

(6.) Large. — You have great taste and talent for mechanical pur- 

^ suits ; delight in building, repairing, and employing machinery ; with 

/ large Imitation, can make anything after a pattern — anything, in fact, 

that you have seen made; and with large Causality, are strongly 

inclined to invent and to contrive new ways of doing things. As a 

writer, you would show groat skill in the construction of your 




sentences, as well as in the arrangement of the subject-matter of y jut 
essay or book. [88.] 

(5.) Full. — You have a good degree of mechanical judgment and in- 
genuity; are interested in machinery and mechanical operations, and 
with practice would attain skill in the use of tools. [88.] 

(4.) Average. — "With the education of a mechanic — a thorough 
training in any particular trade — you may make a good workman, 
but manifest no special liking for the use of tools. Cultivate. [88.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are rather awkward in the use of tools, and 
should not attempt anything requiring much mechanical skill. 
Cultivate. [88.] 

(2.) Small. — You are deficient in constructive talent, and should not 
attempt to invent. Cultivate. [88.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You are very awkward in vour attempts (if 
you ever make any) to use tools, and could scarcely build a rough hen- 
coop. Cultivate. [88.] 


(7.) Vert Large. — You have the most exquisite ta«te, the highest 
degree of refinement, and intense love of the beautiful ; live in an ideal 
world ; set up a high standard in character and manners ; have a most 
vivid imagination, and with the mental temperament and a good 
development of the reflective faculties, Constructiveness, Imitation, 
etc., are capable of achieving success in the highest walks of poetry or 
art. [90.] Your danger lies in the direction of extra fastidiousness 
and the tyrannical domination of the ideal, shutting you out from all 
participation in the interests and enjoyments of the real world around 
you. Restrain. [90.] 

(6.) Large. — You are imaginative, refined, and tasteful ; love poetry, 
art, and the beautiful in nature ; have high ideas of propriety in expres* 
sion and conduct; are graceful and polished in manners; have lofty 
aspirations ; incline to strive after perfection in character and perform- 
ance, and' if otherwise well-endowed (see 7), possess a talent for the 
creation of the beautiful in poetry or art. [88.] 

(5.) Full. — You are not wanting in taste, refinement, or love of the 
beautiful ; enjoy poetry and art ; appreciate elegance and polished 
manners ; and have elevated notions of the proprieties of life, but are 
not sentimental, fanciful, or over-fastidious. You love adornment and 
display, but are not disposed to sacrifice the useful to the ornamental. 

(4.) Average.— You show more liking for the plain and substantial 
than for the ornamental ; are a utilitarian ; live in a real, every-day, 
matter-of-fact world ; and never " soar into the blue," or wander en- 
chanted in the realms of the ideal. You are rather plain in your 
manners, and in talking or writing make use of few figures of speech. 



preferring to say what need be said in the most direct and literal way. 
Cultivate. [90.J 

(b.) Moderate. — You are somewhat deficient in taste ; rather 
" homespun " in manners ; very plain in speech ; and have little 
imagination. You are no lover of art, poetry, or the beautiful in 
nature, and your character is lacking in elevation and refinement. 
Cultivate. [90.] 

(2.) Small. — You show a marked deficiency in taste, polish, and re- 
finement, and are extremely utilitarian. Cultivate. [90.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You evince no taste and no appreciation of 
beauty. Cultivate. [90.] 


(7.) Very Large.— You appreciate and admire in the highest degree 
the wild, the romantic, the grand, the sublime, the illimitable, tho 
eternal, the infinite ; have a real passion for mountain scenery, vast 
prospects, foaming breakers, and roaring waterfalls; enjoy with the 
greatest zest " the war of elements — thunder, lightning, tempest, the 
ocean in a storm, the surging rush of a swollen stream in a freshet — 
whatever is magnificent or awful ;" love to contemplate the seemingly 
boundless expanse of ocean ; the glory of the starry heavens ; and 
above all (with Veneration full or large), the omnipotence of the Deity 
and the infinitude of His works. In writing or speaking, you are 
inclined to use high-sounding words and metaphorical expressions, 
and must guard yourself against verbal extravagance and bombast In 
other respects there is no need to restrain. [91.] 

(6.) Large. — Your manifestations are like those described in (7), 
except in a somewhat lower degree. With a good development of the 
intellectual organs, you will take comprehensive views of subjects, and 
give a wide scope to your thoughts and investigations. [91.] 

(5.) Full. — You enjoy the grand, the sublime, and the magnificent, 
and appreciate mountain scenery, the vastness of the ocean, and tho 
awfulness of the tempest, but in a lower degree than (7) and (G), which 
See. [91.] 

(4.) Average. — You manifest only a moderate degree of this element 
of character, under ordinary circumstances, but when the organ is 
powerfully excited, may enjoy sublimity and grandeur very highly. 
Cultivate. [91.] 

(3.) Moderate.— You are rather deficient in the manifestation of 
this faculty. Cultivate. [91.] 

(2.) Small. — You care very little for the grand and sublime in any 
form. Cultivate. [91.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You are nearly destitute of this faculty. Culti- 
vate. [W.1 






(7.) Vest Large. — You are capable of becoming a consummate 
mimic; could make almost anything from pattern; have a taste and 
talent for acting and of representing life to the letter. It would be 
natural for you to make use of many gestures when speaking; impart 
great expression to your countenance when animated ; and with large 
Mirthfulness can relate anecdotes to the very life, and keep a company 
in a roar of laughter by your droll personations. Restrain. [93.] 

(6.) Large. — You have great ability to copy, make things after a 
pattern, mimic, and act a part in an assumed character; can readily 
adapt yourself to different circumstances, take on any mood you 
choose and act out its proper manifestations ; can be anybody else just 
about as easily as your own proper self; are able to imitate the voice, 
gestures, mode of walking, expression, etc., of your friends and 
acquaintances to the life. [93.] 

(5.) Full. — You have good imitative powers, and can copy, mimic, 
or personate others very well when you try, but are not particularly 
inclined to assume a character or to follow an example unless stimula- 
ted thereto by more influential faculties. [92.] 

(4) Average. — You can copy tolerably well, when this faculty is 
excited and backed up by other organs, but have no strong inclination 
to mimic or imitate others. You prefer to be yourself rather than 
anybody else. [92.] 

(3.) Moderate. — Your imitative capacities are rather limited, and 
you manifest little inclination to take pattern from others, or to be a 
mere copyist ; are disposed to strike out new paths ; work on a plan 
of your own ; and seek originality. [93.] 

(2.) Small. — You have your own way of doing things, and seldom 
willingly copy anything or take pattern from anybody. Cultivate. [93.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You have little ability to copy anything, and 
manifest no disposition to do so. Cultivate. [93.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You should be remarkably witty, jovial, comical; 
and have a great love for jokes and the ludicrous. With Ideality 
only average, you are in danger of becoming too comical, if not clown- 
ish, descending to low, coarse jests, and of making fun on solemn or 
unsuitable occasions. Restrain. [95.] 

(6.) Large. — You can fully appreciate a joke, and know how to mako 
one ; enjoy fun, and do your share in creating it ; laugh heartily, and 
Keep a company in good-humor by your mirthful sallies. With large 
Comparison and Combativeness, you would be capable of severe 
sarcasm. You should cultivate Ideality, to give your wit delicacy and 
refinement, otherwise you/ jokes may not always be in goou taata 
Eeatraizi, [95.] ^ . 


(5) Full.— Tour capacity for appreciating wit and humor is good, 
end you nave considerable ability for making fun; are witty, playfu',, 
and humorous, especially under the stimulus of jovial company, but 
are not remarkable for the manifestation of this faculty. [98.] 

(4.) Average. — You may enjoy wit and humor and appreciate a 
joke under a powerful excitement of this faculty ; but in general you 
are sober, serious, and sedate, and not inclined to encourage laughter 
or fun-making. Cultivate. [95.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are rather too seriously inclined, as a general 
rule, but may occasionally manifest considerable playfulness and humor. 
If Combativeness and Approbativeness be full or large, you may no I 
always take a ioke so good-humored ly as you ought. It will do you 
good to cultivate good-humor and to laugh more. Cultivate. [95.] 

(2.) Small. — You are rather slow to perceive the point of a joke, 
and are seldom able to turn back a witticism aimed at yourself; are 
not inclined to laugh, and perhaps think it foolish or wrong to be 
jovial or merry. Cultivate. [95.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You are quite too sober, and have few if any 
humorous conceptions — can not take a joke. Cultivate. [95.] 


(7.) Vert Large. — You have extraordinary powers of observation, 
and an insatiable desire to see everything and to know all about what 
ever comes under your observation. You are irresistibly impelled to 
y/ individualize things, and are very minute and particular in your obser- 
vation, taking account of particulars which would escape most persona 
altogether. You should carefully guard yourself against obtruskeness 
in exercising your curiosity or passion for observation. Do not so far 
forget good manners as to "stare" impudently at any one. Try to 
think as well as to look. In other respects, there is no need to restrain. 

(6.) Large. — You are a great practical observer of men and things; 
-y^see everything ; and take account of all the particulars. You are char 
acterized as (7), ouly in a lower degree. [95.] 

(5.) Full. — You are a good observer; keep your eyes open to some 
purpose ; see clearly whatever is readily observable, but are not in- 
clined to a very close scrutiny or to the scanning of minute details. 
You have a desire to see and examine things generally, but do not 
allow this faculty to assume a controlling influence in your character. 

(4 ) Average. — Your observation is confined mainly to the more 
conspicuous object?, around you, or to such as interest other and larger 
faculties, and is rather general than particular. Cultivate. [97.J 

(3.) Moderate.-- -You have only ordinary observing powers, and, 
ttuless the faculty be specially stimulated, take but little notice of 


things, and are consequently vague in your descriptions of what yon 
have seen. Cultivate. [97.J 

(2.) Small. — Your observing powers are feeble. Tou use your eyes 
to so little purpose that they might almost as well be closed. Your 
notions of what you have seen are very vague. Cultivate. [97.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You seem to be literally one of those who, " hav- 
ing eyes, see not." Cultivate. [97.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You are remarkable for ability to observe and 
remember shapes and forms, and an excellent judge of configuration. 
You hardly ever forget a face or a picture that has attracted your 
attention. [97.] 

(6.) Large. — Your memory of faces, forms, features, outlines, etc., is 

sj excellent, and you are a good judge of symmetry, proportion, and 

beauty of form. Can remember mimes by seeing them in writing. [97.] 

(5.) Full. — Your memory of faces and forms is good but not remark- 
ably tenacious. Your judgment of configuration and symmetry is 
fair. Cultivate. [99.] 

(4.) Average. — You have a tolerable development of this faculty, 
and with practice may recollect countenances, shapes, and so forth, 
with considerable distinctness. Cultivate. [99.] 

(3.) Moderate. — Your memory of faces, forms, and shapes is neither 
very distinct nor very retentive, and your ability to recognize persons 
is poor. Cultivate. [99.] 

(2.) Small. — You have a very feeble recollection of faces, and soon 
forget the appearance of things you have seen. Cultivate. [99.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You manifest little or none of this faculty. Cul- 
tivate. [99.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You have great ability to judge of magnitude ; 
can determine very closely by the eye alone the length, breadth, or 
height of an object ; have an accurate eye for proportion, and detect at 
a giance any departure from perfect correctness in this respect. [99.] 

(6.) Large. — You have an excellent eye for measuring angles, pro- 
portions, and dimensions; are a good judge of harmony between the 
different parts of a thing, and are annoyed by a want of proportion or a 
departure from accuracy in the lines of direction. [99.] 

(5.) Full. — You possess a good share of the ability to measure by 
the eye, but require practice to give you entire correctness in this par- 
ticular. Cultivate. [100.] 

(4.) Average. — You have only a fair share of this eye-measuring 
power, but with considerable practice may do tolerably well. Culti- 
vate. [100.] 




(3.) Moderate. — You are no* a good judge of size or proportion, 
and should not trust to the eye where correct measurements are 
required. Cultivate, p. 00.] 

(2.) Small. — You have very vague ideas of length, breadth, height, 
etc., and a poor judgmene of proportion. Cultivate. [100.] 

(1.) Vert Small. — You manifest little or none of this faculty. Old- 
fwate, [100.] '■ 


(7.) Very Large. — You have remarkable skill in balancing; are 
sure-footed , seldom stumble or fall ; possess wonderful skill in skating, 
swimming, sleight-of-hand, hurling, shooting, horseback-riding, etc. ; 
and naturally assume easy and natural attitudes in standing, and a 
graceful gait in walking. Your perception of the laws of gravity and 
ability to maintain the equipoise of any body you can control are very 
great. With a little practice, you could perform wonderful feats in 
walking a tight-rope, balancing poles and other objects ; or in riding, 
Vaulting, etc. [100.] 

(G.) Large. — You have nice intuitive perceptions of the laws of 
gravity, and great ability to apply them ; are fond of exercises involv- 
ing skill in balancing, such as riding, skating, shooting ; have a steady 
hand and a sure foot ; love to walk on narrow and dangerous places ; 
assume natural attitudes; are annoyed by seeing anything out of 
plumb or unevenly balanced ; and, with Constructivcncss large, possess 
great natural ability to operate machinery. [100 " 

(5.) Full. — You have good command over your muscles, and with 
practice can balance well, but have no extraordinary perception of the 
laws of gravity. Cultivate. [101.] 

(4.) Average. — You are described in (5), but in a somewhat lower 
degree; would require much practice to balance well. Cultivate. [101.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You have but little skill in balancing, and lack 
the nice appreciation of the laws of gravity which give ability to ride, 
skate, shoot, or hurl well; you should not attempt to walk on high and 
narrow places. Cultivate. [101.] 

(2.) Small. — You can hardly walk a broad plank over a ditch ; get 
dizzy on high places ; are easily made sea-sick, and are not a good 
rider, skater, or marksman. Cultivate. [101.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You have barely sufficient appreciation of the 
laws of gravity and command over the muscles to stand erect. Cul- 
tivate. [101.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You have a passion for colors, and an instinctive 
perception of their harmonies ; can arrange and blend all the shades, 

iiuea, and tints in painting or otherwise, with the greatest skill; as a 


painter, would excel in coloring. Inappropriate or inharmonious 
*r arrangements of colors give you pain. [102.J 

(6.) Large. — You are as described in (7), only in a lower degree. 
(5.) Full. — You are a fair judge of colors and of fitness in their 

/combination; but require practice to enable you to determine their 
finer shades and blendings. Cultivate. [103.] 

(4.) Average. — You are as described in (5), but in a lower degree. 
Cultivate. [103.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are naturally deficient in the discrimination 
of colors, and only glaring ones or strong contrasts attract your atten- 
tion ; with a good deal of practice, however, you might acquire a fair 
degree of skill in judging of the primitive colors and their more com- 
mon combinations. Cultivate. [103.] 

(2.) Small. — You are very deficient in perception of colors, and care 
little for them. Cultivate. [103.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You have no love for colors, and but a very 
weak perception of the distinction implied by the word. One who 
can not distinguish different colors may be pronounced idiotic in this 
particular, i. e., he lacks the faculty. Cultivate. [103.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You are exceeding^ systematic; very particular 
about having everything in its proper place ; are tidy, precise, and 
formal to a fault, and unless this faculty be restrained, you will spend 
too much time in trying (in vain) to keep everything " just so," or to 
restore order where others are continually creating what to you seems 
confusion. You are liable to be " more nice than wise." Restrain. 

(6.) Large. — You are inclined to be very regular, orderly, and sys- 

/tematic in all your arrangements ; are sometimes too precise and formal ; 
have a place for everything, and are annoyed by seeing anything out 
of place, or hj any failure on the part of those around you to appreciate 
your methodical habits or to adhere to your strict rules of order. 
Restrain. [104] 

(5.) Full. — You are systematic and orderly ; like to see things in 
their places ; are disposed to be tidy and careful in dress ; but are not 
a slave to method, and when disorder can not be avoided, submit to it 
with a good grace. You are more orderly in theory than in practice, 
unless trained in some business in which method is particularly 
requisite. Cultivate. [1 04.] 

(4.) Average. — You like order, and will make some effort to secure 
it ; but often permit disorder to usurp its place. You are not disposed 
to be precise, formal, or " old-maidish." Cultivate. [104.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are rather untidy and careless in dress and 



habits; seldom have a place for anything or anything in its place; 
leave your business at loose ends ; and bave a slip-shod, disjointed 
way of doing everything. Cultivate. [104.] 

(2.) Small.— You have a very careless, unmethodical, and inaccurate 
way of doing tilings, and are inclined to be shiftless and slovenly in 
your habits. Cultivate. [104.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You have little appreciation of order, neatness, 
or system, and manifest no arranging power. Cultivate [104.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You have remarkable natural talent for com- 
putation ; multiply and divide intuitively; seem to solve difficult 
problems in mathematics by instinct ; and take intense delight in 
figures and statistics, and in the various applications and relations of 
numbers. [104.] 

(6.) Large. — You excel in mental arithmetic, add, subtract, multiply, 
and divide with great facility; perceive very readily the value and 
relations of numbers ; are fond of statistical information ; and with 
full or large Locality and Causality may excel in the higher branches 
of mathematics. [104.] 

(5.) Full. — You succeed very well in the use of numbers, but 
are not remarkable for ability to calculate " in the head." Cul- 
tivate. [106.] 

(4.) Average. — You require considerable study and practice to give 
you facility in arithmetical calculations, but with it can succeed very 
fairly. Cultivate. [10G.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You remember numbers with difficulty, and are 
neither quick nor accurate in adding, subtracting, multiplying, or 
dividing. You think arithmetic a bore, and should not attempt to 
become a book-keeper or an accountant. Cultivate. [106.] 

(2.) Small. — You are dull and slow in learning arithmetic, and, 
perhaps, like Mr. George Combe, have never been able to master the 
multiplication table. You have no taste for numbers, and a very poor 
memory of them. Cultivate. [106.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You bave hardly the ability to count, much less 
to calculate, and are unfortunate in respect to this faculty. If you 
take a realizing sense of your deficiency, you will not venture on 
mathematical calculations. Cultivate. [106.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You have an insaliable love of traveling, and 
desire to see the world, and a remarkably retentive memory of the 
localities you visit; have an intuitive idea of both the relative and 
absolute position of places, and never lose your way either in the 
forests or in the streets of a strange city. You are inclined to be top 




roving and unsettled in your habits, and to spend all your time and 
money in traveling. Restrain. [107.] 

(6.) Large. — You have a strong desire to travel and to see places ; 
delight in books of travel ; are deeply interested in the study of geog- 
raphy and astronomy ; seldom forget any place you have once seen, 
and can find your way anywhere, as if by instinct. Would make a 
good explorer. [106.] 

(5.) Full. — Your memory of places is good, and you enjoy traveling 
and reading of travels ; find your way quite well ordinarily, but are 
not remarkably endowed in this particular. Cultivate. [107.] 

(4) Average. — Your recollection of places is fair, but you have no 
great desire to travel or to see strange countries, and may sometimes 
lose your way. Cultivate. [107.] 

(3.) Moderate. — Your local memory is rather poor, and you prefer 
staying at home to traveling, and often become confused, " turned 
about," or lost in strange places. Cultivate. [107.] 

(2.) Small. — You have a ver3 r poor memory of places, and find even 
familiar ones with difficulty. Cultivate. [107.] 

(1.) Very Small. — Your local instinct is so weak that you can 
hardly find your way home from any neighboring place. Cultivate. 


(7.) Vert Large. — You should possess a wonderfully retentive 
memory of facts, incidents, and general knowledge ; and have strong 
craving for information. You would be a great devourer of books, 
newspapers, and periodicals; and with large Language and Imitation, 
would excel in story-telling. [108.] 

(6.) Large. — You ought to have a retentive memory of historical 
facts, incidents, stories, and general information ; love to acquire 
knowledge ; are fond of books, learn readily anything relating to 
history or biography. You are likely to be well informed on common 
subjects and, with fair opportunities, to be a good scholar. [108.] 

(5.) Full. — Your memory of facts and circumstances should be 
good, if properly cultivated, but may have become indifferent through 
neglect. You may, if the reflective faculties be large, remember prin- 
ciples better than facts. Cultivate. [109.] 

(4.) Average. — You may recollect leading events, and facts in 
which you are particularly interested, but are rather deficient in 
memory of indifferent matters and the details of occurrences. Cul- 
tivate. [109.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You have a rather poor memory of events, and are 
particularly forgetful of details. You are a poor story-teller.- Cul- 
tivate. [109.] 

(2.) Small. — Your memory is treacherous and confused, and can 




not safely be relied upon for anything relating to facts, occurrences, or 
the circumstances of active life. Cultivate. [109.] 

(1.) Very Small. — Your memory is utterly untrustworthy. You 
forget almost everything relating to what has happened, no matter 
how recently. Cultivate. [109.] 

XLVni.— TIME. 

(7.) Vert Large. — You seem to have an intuitive knowledge of 
the lapse of time ; can keep time in music, tell the time of day almost' 
as correctly without a time-piece as with one ; and can wake at any 
pre-appointed hour of the night. [109.] 

(G.) Large. — You are an excellent judge of time; can tell when any 
event of which you have a knowledge occurred ; keep time in music 
very correctly ; rarely forget appointments ; and should be an accurate 
chronologist. [109.] 

(5.) 'Full. — You can keep time in music and, with practice, can 
carry in your head the time of day, but are not remarkably endowed 
in this particular. Cultivate. [110.] 

(4.) Average. — Your memory of dates is fair, but you require prac- 
tice to give you accuracy in keeping time in music. Cultivate. [110.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You have a rather defective notion of time, and 
not a good memory of dates. Cultivate. [110.] 

(2.) Small. — You have a confused and indistinct idea of time, and 
arc apt to forget appointments. Cultivate. [110.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You are nearly destitute of this faculty. Cul- 
tivate. [110.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You are passionately fond of music ; have extra- 
ordinary musical taste and talent ; and with a good development of 
Imitation, Construed veness, Ideality, and Time, and a tine organiza- 
tion, may become an expert performer, or, with large Ideality, Caus- 
ality, and Comparison, a composer. [110.] 

[6.] Large. — You are constituted as described in (7), except in a 
'somewhat lower degree ; have a tine ear for music, and enjoy if you 
do not readily learn anything _you hear. [110.] 

(5.) Full. — You ha^e good musical taste ; are very fond of music ; 
and with practice can become a performer. Cultivate. [112.] 

(4.) Average. — You have fair musical ability, but considerable 
practice would be required to give you proficiency in music. You 
have more love for the "concord of sweet sounds" than power to 
produce it. Cultivate. [112.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are not particularly fond of music, but are 
capable of acquiring some taste for the simpler kinds, and v> itli practice 
may learn to sing. CuUimie. [11-.] 




(2.) Small. — Tou have very little taste or love for music, and lesa 
ability to produce it. Cultivate. [112.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You manifest little or none of this faculty. 
Cultivate. [112.]* 


(7.) Very Large. — You have great copiousness of expression, a 
passion for talking or writing ; are capable of becoming very fluent 
and correct in the use of language ; generally put the right word in 
the right place; have a remarkable verbal memory; readily make 
quotations ; learn languages with facility by hearing them spoken ; are 
very liable, unless this faculty be restrained, or balanced by reason, to 
be tediously verbose. Restrain. [114.] 

(6.) Large. — You are fluent and copious in the use of words, both 
in writing and speaking ; can learn to talk well, and would love to 
talk; can learn foreign languages easily; and have an excellent mem- 
ory of words. You can tell all you know, and generally make use of 
correct if not elegant language ; are rather inclined to verbosity than 
to barrenness of expression, and to talk too much rather than too little. 
Restrain. [114.] 

(5.) Full. — You have a good command of language ; express your- 
self with considerable ease and fluency, but are not remarkable for 
copiousness, and are seldom verbose or redundant. With practice you 
might make a good speaker, but can do better with the pen than with 
the tongue. Cultivate. [114.] 

(4.) Average. — You are not very fluent in the use of language ; say 
what you desire to say in few words ; are not very fond of talking ; 
with practice may write well, but not rapidly. Cultivate. [114.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You find some difficulty in expressing your ideas, 
your vocabulary being small and your memory and command of words 
poor. With constant practice, you may write effectively, but your 
style will be rather dry and barren. As a speaker, yon would not be 
likely to succeed. You may learn foreign languages, but will speak 
them with difficulty, if at all. Cultivate. [114.] 

(2.) Small.— You speak with difficulty; often hesitate for words; 
and are apt to blunder in the construction of your sentences. Cultivate. 

(1.) Very Small. — Your memory of words is exceedingly poor, and 
your power of expression almost entirely lacking. Cultivate. [114.] 

* The Friends, or Quakers— many of them— are opposed to music, on the 
ground that it is used as a sensuous gratification; a disturbing element; opposed to 
simple, silent devotion. We regard Tune as a faculty of the human mind, created for 
a useful purpose, and not to he ignored or suppressed because of its abuse, any more 
than that of the appetite, or of Veneration itself, which is sometimes exercised on 
idols, images, and gods of wood and stone. The right use of all the faculties will b^ 
acceptable to Him who created them. 




(7.) Very Large. — You should be noted for originality, planning 
capacity, intuitive perception of the relations of cause and effect, and 
great reasoning power and comprehension. You are naturally a 
thinker and a philosopher, and are in danger of becoming an impracti- 
cable theorist. Restrain. [115.] 

(C. ) Large. — You have excellent reasoning power; uncommon 
capacity for contriving ways and means ; can generally trace effects 
back to their causes, or predicate results ; are good at making plans ; 
have a strong desire to know the "why" and "wherefore" of every- 
thing ; are not satisfied with a superficial knowledge, but desire to go 
to the bottom of every subject; are liable to be abstruse and more 
theoretical than practical. Restrain. [115.] 

(5.) Full.-; — Your capacity to plan, invent, originate, and adapt 
means to ends is good, and with activity well developed and Com- 
parison and the perceptives large, may manifest a good degree of 
reasoning power; but with these conditions reversed, you will plan 
better than you will execute. You like to know why things are as 
they are, but are not disposed to push your investigations too closely. 

(4.) Average. — Your planning and reasoning ability depends greatly 
upon the influence of other and larger organs, but in general it is only 
fair. Cultivate. [115.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are rather deficient in the ability to discern 
and apply principles, and possess no great originality or planning 
capacity. Cultivate. [115.] 

(2.) Small. — You are decidedly deficient in reasoning power and 
ability to contrive, plan, and adapt means to ends. Cultivate. [115 ] 

(1.) Vert Small. — You are almost utterly destitute of originality. 
Cultivate. [115.] 


(7 ) Very Large. — You possess remarkable powers of analysis ; 
ability to reason from analogy and to discover new truths by induction; 
can clearly trace out relations between the known and the unknown 
which escape common investigators, and with Individuality, Eventu- 
ality, and Causality well developed, will manifest great capacity for 
making discoveries and a passion for analytical investigations most 
useful to the phrenologist. [115.] 

(6.) Large. — Your capacity for inductive reasoning is excellent; 
you manifest great ability in tracing the connection between known 

/facts and phenomena and the laws or principles which govern them, 
a disposition to analyze, resolve combinations into elements, dissect, 
criticise, compare, and classify ; to observe similarities and dissimilar- 
ities ; to trace analogies ; to explain Joy illustration ; and in speaking, \o 


use many comparisons, metaphors, and similes. With large Language, 
Continuity, Constructiveness, and Ideality, should write and speak 
with great fluency, correctness, and elegance, and in a style dis- 
tinguished for clearness as well as for beauty; but with these organs 
moderate or small, there will be a liability to broken metaphors and 
imperfect and confusing comparisons. You would make a good 
ohemist. [115.] 
. (5.) Full. — You appreciate fine comparisons and sound inductive 
• reasoning, and are inclined to make use of the analogical and analytical 
methods of arriving at the truth, but are not remarkably developed in 
this faculty. Cultivate. [117.] 

(4.) Average. — Your analogical ability is fair, when called into 
activity by the larger organs, but otherwise is rather weak in its mani- 
festations. Cultivate. [117.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are not much inclined to institute comparisons 
or to observe resemblances or differences, and neither make use of nor 
appreciate metaphors and similes, but maj r enjoy a simple and direct 
comparison. Your ability to illustrate one case or point by another 
involving similar principle is poor. Cultivate. [117.] 

(2.) Small. — You seldom observe likenesses or dissimilarities, have 
no skill in tracing analogies, and are content to take things as you find 
them in their combinations, instead of pulling them in pieces or resolv- 
ing them into elements to find out how they are made or the propor- 
tions of their parts. Cultivate. [117.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You manifest little or none of this element of 
character. Cultivate. [117.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You are a natural physiognomist, or, rather, an 
intuitive discerner of character, forming correct estimates of the dis- 
position and moral status of those you meet at a single glance, especial- 
ly if they be of the opposite sex. You can trust your first impressions 
of character. With large Comparison, would make an excellent practical 
phrenologist and physiognomist. It is usually large in our North Ameri« 
tan Indians, and should be so in our police and in all detectives. [117.] 

(6.) Large. — You have an excellent judgment in matters of charac- 
ter; read men and women intuitively; love to study the "Signs of 
Character" in the features, voice, walk, manners, etc., and could 
become a good practical delineator of character. [117.] 

(5) Full. — Your first impressions of character are generally correct; 
but you are liable to make occasional mistakes. You love to study 
character, and with practice may become a good practical phrenologist 
or physiognomist. Cultivate. [118.] 

(4.) Average. — Your talents for reading character are fair, but your 
first impressions are not to be fully trusted. Cultivate, [118.J 


(3.) Moderate. — You have no great natural capacity for character- 
reading, and often form incorrect estimates of people, but with study 
and practice may do tolerably well. Cultivate. [118.] 

(2.) Small. — You are a poor judge of character and are easily 
imposed upon — do not know how to take people. Cultivate. [118.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You have little or no appreciation of human 
pature.. Cultivate. [118.] 


(7.) Very Large. — You are remarkably bland, winning, and per- 
suasive ; very conciliatory ; and generally please everybody. Are 
more like a Frenchman than an Englishman. [118.] 

(6.) Large. — -You have an agreeable and fascinating manner, and a 

"y^way of saying and doing even disagreeable things at which no one can 

take offense, and which makes everything you say and do acceptable. 

You are conciliatory and persuasive, and are almost universally liked. 

" Are all things to all men." [118.] 

(5.) Full.— You are pleasing and bland in your manners, and, with 
large Ideality, polite and agreeable ; but when angry, may make use 
of blunt and sharp expressions. Cultivate. [119.] 

(1.) Average. — You are generally pleasant in conversation and 
manners, but may when excited become very brusque and repulsive. 
Are more like an Englishman than a Frenchman. Cultivate. [119.] 

(3.) Moderate. — You are rather deficient in Agreeableness, and 
have little ability to smooth over your words or actions. Cultivate. 

(2.) Small. — You have an unpleasant way of saying even pleasant 
things, and often quite unnecessarily provoke the ill-will of those 
around you. Cultivate. [119.] 

(1.) Very Small. — You manifest no desire or ability to please. 
Cultivate. [119.] 


) Note. — Some of the most important works on Phrenology are 
Spurzheim's Phrenology ; Combe"s System of Phrenology ; Combe's 
Con-titution of Man; Fowler's Self-Instructor; Brain and Mind, Forty 
Years in Phrenology; Heads and Faces ; Choice of Puisuits; How 
to Teach ; How to Read Character ; Fowler's Lectures ; Wells' New 
Physiognomy ; Phrenology Proved ; Defence of Phrenology ; Resem- 
blance to Parents ; How to Study Strangers by Temperament, Face 
and Head ; Phrenological Journal, monthly ; Human Nature Library, 
10c. a number, and the Phrenological Bust. , ..— .,,, ^.. „.-„- i 

Phrenological Examinations 



We always recommend a personal examination 
where possible. If you cannot come to us perhapa 
there is a graduate of the 

American Institute of Phrenology 

in your neighborhood. If, however, for any rea- 
son personal examination is impossible, delinea- 
tions from photographs by our method will be 
found very satisfactory. 

Each delineation is a careful, conscientious, 
painstaking study of photographs and measure- 
ments, by an expert examiner. The fee is uni- 
formly five dollars. 


Have two photographs, profile and full front, 
taken especially for the purpose. Have the hair 
smoothed (not frizzed or curly) to show the con- 
tours of the head. Send these to us with the 
following measurements: Distance between open- 
ings of the ears over crown of head. Distance be- 
tween root of nose and the projection at base of 
back head (occipital spine), also the circumference 
of the head. 

Inclose the fee, and be sure and send your 
name and address. Also your age, and color of 
hair and eyes. 



27 East 21st St., New York 

' ¥